Mining  & Metallurgical Society  of America   



Issues Archive -
Minerals Sector of USA Economy

Democracy is not a spectator sport.
Freedom is not free.
Be a spokesman for the mineral businesses!

This is a library of published materials about many of the current issues that affect the minerals business. Links to the sources are provided. Much of the research is already done for you. Use these references when you wish to speak or write to the public about  their concerns regarding the minerals business.

Your contributions to this library are welcome; send items to Paul Chamberlin  or fax to 303-979-6753.

3809 Regulations

Letter (Dec. 31, 2001) from MMSA President Marc LeVier  containing Final Comments about the 3809 regulations.

Final 3809 Regulations, Federal Register, October 30, 2001. These regulations are both ‘final’ and ‘proposed’ and they govern exploration and mining activities on BLM land. Because they are still officially ‘proposed’, comments on these rules are still be accepted and must be submitted before December 31, 2001, at which time the rules will become effective.

Proposed Suspension of Rules, analysis of the BLM’s ‘Mining Claims Under the General Mining Laws’ by the Northwest Mining Association, May 4, 2001, 

3809Regs Action information on MMSA Web Site

BLM Instruction Memorandum No. 2003-082, Change 1, March 1, 2004. The BLM must review reclamation cost estimates submitted by operators and the operators must post a financial guarantee sufficient to cover reclamation costs as if the BLM were hiring a third party contractor to perform reclamation of the project. The estimate must include all operating, maintenance and BLM administrative costs (43 CFR 3809.554).


Abandoned Mines
Abandoned Mine Reclamation, Office of Surface Mining’s Annual Report for 2000, pp. 4-19. This summary report includes funding data, projects by State, accomplishments, and more.

Annual Energy Outlook, 2002, Energy Information Administration, DOE, November 2001. This preliminary report will be in final form on 12/21/01. A broad outlook with production numbers and forecasts for the future is presented.


Acid Rock Drainage

Acid Mine Drainage Status of Research, Office of Surface Mining (DOI). Synopsis of predictive methods and several mitigation techniques. 

“Evaluation of Active and Passive Coal Mine Drainage Treatment Systems”, Skelly and Loy quarterly newsletter, Summer 2004. Some of the major technologies are discussed. Key questions to ask are posed. Some comments about the applicable regulations are presented.
Read the Article 

“EPA ‘Good Samaritan’ Initiative Aimed at Removing Legal Barriers to AMD Cleanup”, NMA Mining Week, National Mining Association, September 2, 2005, p.3. Efforts are being made to remove legal barriers and the potential liabilities that have prevented private groups from cleaning up ARD from abandoned mines.

"Downhole Tool Detects Potential ARD", Engineering & Mining Journal, January 2003, p. 37. Early detection of ARD is important. Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) developed a nuclear probe for mineral exploration that now is finding new application in spotting ARD.





EPA: Northeastern States’ Nox Emissions Dropped 30% in 2003”, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, November 2004, p. 1. A cap and trade program begun last year in eight northeastern states has cut nitrogen oxide emissions there by 30% even though power generation increased. The market incentives and benefits of cap and trade are discussed.

Air Pollution Cut in Half, EPA Announces”, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, November 2004, p. 1. Most people are unaware that emissions have been cut by more than 50% since the Clean Air Act was passed in 1970.

“2003 Status Report Shows U.S. Air Cleanest Ever Since 1970”, EPA press release, September 22, 2004. Total emissions of the 6 principal pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and Pb) dropped again in 2003. America’s air is the cleanest ever in 3 decades. Pollutant emissions are down 51% compared to 1970 even while GDP rose 176%, vehicle miles traveled rose 155%, energy consumption rose 45%, and U.S. population rose 39%. 2003 emissions were down 7.8% compared to 2000.

“Fact Sheet: President Bush Announces Clear Skies & Global Climate Change Initiatives”, the White House, February 14, 2002 .  The Clear Skies Initiative will cut power plant emissions of the three worst air pollutants -- nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury -- by 70 percent. The initiative will improve air quality using a proven, market-based approach.

“The Cost of Clean Air”, Maura Webber, Chicago Sun-Times, February 28, 2003. The article warns that new efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming could cost the Illinois government as much as $1.1 billion annually to implement and sock businesses and consumers with as much as $46.1 billion in lost wages and higher energy costs. The study comes as environmental activists mount a state-by-state campaign to implement provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. 

“Clear Skies or energy: a false choice”, Theodore Venners, Special to the Rocky Mountain News, September 15, 2003. New technology makes having to choose between clean air and affordable energy unnecessary.,1299,DRMN_38_2259541,00.html 

Air Quality in U.S. Continues to Improve,  Joel Schwartz, The Heartland Institute 09/01/2003 .  The United States has made dramatic progress in reducing air pollution over the past few decades, and most American cities now enjoy relatively good air quality.

  “Clear Skies Initiative Faces Stormy Future”, James M. Taylor, The Heartland Institute, 09/01/2003 .  Congressmen on both sides of the aisle are predicting contentious deliberations over President George W. Bush’s Clear Skies Initiative.

“Earth Day 2003 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment”, National Center for Public Policy Research. April 21, 2003. Many myths and the facts to refute them are presented. 

“American Lung Association's 'State of the Air' Report is Designed to Scare”, National Center for Public Policy Research, May 1, 2003. On May 1, 2003, the American Lung Association will release its annual "State of the Air" report providing details on air pollution levels across the U.S. This report is designed to scare the public and influence policymakers in favor of greater regulations and spending. 

“Clear Skies 2003”, EPA. This is the EPA’s web site for information about the Clear Skies program including purposes, health benefits, and economic impacts. 

  "Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet: Environmental Progress Since the First Earth Day", National Center for Public Policy Research. Since 1970, aggregate emissions of the six principal air pollutants tracked nationally have been cut by 29 percent. During that same time period, the U.S. Gross Domestic Product increased 158 percent, while energy consumption increased 45 percent. Vehicle miles traveled have increased 143 percent.

  "Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment", National Center for Public Policy Research. Air quality today is much better than it was in the 1970s. Aggregate emissions of the six "criteria" pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act have fallen by 64 percent since 1970 according to the EPA.

Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

“Bush Announces Kyoto Alternative”, James M. Taylor.  Environment & Climate News, April, 2002, p.1.   American businesses would be asked to register with the federal government to create an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and be eligible to trade emission "credits" according to a program announced by President George W. Bush on February 14.  Participating companies would volunteer for a ‘Climate Leaders’ program to complete a corporate-growth greenhouse gas inventory and to work with EPA to set an emissions reduction target. 

Bush Calls for Power Plant Emission Cuts, Environment & Climate News, April 2002, p.7.  President Bush proposed mandatory reductions in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and mercury emissions under a cap-and-trade system called the Clean Skies Initiative. The cap-and-trade approach allows businesses that find ways to reduce pollution beyond their pre-set goals to sell their newly created pollution “credits” to other businesses who come up short on their goals.

America Using More Energy with Less Pollution, Ben Lieberman, Environment & Climate News, April, 2002, p.7. “Breathing Easier about Energy: A Healthy Economy and Healthier Air,”, released recently by the Foundation for Clean Air Progress, compares energy use and air quality since 1970. The report concludes that energy use has increased, while energy-related emissions have declined.  The study relies solely on Department of Energy and EPA data. It concludes that overall energy consumption grew by 41 percent over the past three decades and yet the air is actually cleaner today than it was back in 1970 with a 75% decline in particulates (soot) and a 39% drop in sulfur dioxide.  Since 1970, aggregate emissions of six principal pollutants tracked nationally have been cut 29 percent whereas energy consumption increased 45 percent. 

National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997, EPA Fact Sheet, EPA Document Number 454/R-98-016, 12/10/98. Nationally, the 1997 air quality levels are the best on record for all six of the "criteria pollutants". In fact, all the years throughout the 1990s have had better air quality than any of the years in the 1980s, showing a steady trend of improvement. Links are provided.

“Particle Civics”, Joel Schwartz, American Enterprise Institute, January 4, 2006. Even though the EPA cut particle pollution by 45%, the press and environmentalists are not happy. Details of the PM2.5 standard are provided.

“Argus Air Daily”.
This is a website that assesses daily prices for emissions allowance markets in the US. Argus currently assesses current vintage (spot), forward prices for SO2 and NOx allowances, and previous year (banked) NOx allowances. Argus Air Daily also publishes monthly and weekly indexes for these allowances. Argus publishes a monthly Broker Index as well, based on a methodology suggested by the Environmental Markets Association.

“A Healthy Economy and Healthier Air”, Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), January 2002. Air quality has improved dramatically over the past three decades but the public doesn’t recognize this feat. Facts and statistics are provided.

Senate Committee To Markup Clear Skies Bill This Week”, Environment & Energy Daily, 2/14/2005. Changes to S-131,the ‘Clear Skies Act of 2005’, are detailed. They will provide sensible multi-emission controls that will further reduce power plant emissions by 70% and provide the necessary regulatory certainty needed by coal-based power plants as they continue to satisfy America’s electricity demands.

EPA proposes NSPS, PSD requirements”, Mining Week, National Mining Association, February 25, 2005. The EPA has proposed to amend existing New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) regulations associated with emissions from utility, industrial, commercial and institutional steam generating units as well as nitrogen oxide (NOx) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements.

Carbon emissions trading is new weapon to battle global warming”, Associated Press,
2/9/2005. Some of the pros and cons are discussed.



 EPA Delivers on Arsenic Rule, Pollution Engineering, January 2002. A summary of the history and politics surrounding the EPA’s decision to lower arsenic levels in water, along with an excellent primer on arsenic.

 Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences. More background information about arsenic.

EPA Administrator Christie Todd-Whitman announced on 10/31/01 that the arsenic in drinking water standard will remain at 10 ppb, lower than the current 50 ppb but higher than the proposed 3 ppb. Clean Water Issues, American Geological Institute’s Government Affairs Program, 11/2/01. Testimony and documents concerning the new 10 ppb arsenic concentration in drinking water are referenced.

Comments on Proposed Arsenic MCL, Northwest Mining Association, June 22, 2000, 

“Cost Effective Method for Removing Arsenic from Water”, Technology Transfer Department, E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, December 12, 2004. A low cost, efficient method for removing arsenic from water to <10ppb (the new EPA standard that will go into effect in January 2006) has been developed in the laboratory. The process uses bottom ash that has been coated with ferric hydroxide.

Letter to the EPA, W-99-16-V1 Arsenic Comment Clerk from Paul Jones, Chair – Governmental Affairs Committee for MMSA . " The Mining and Metallurgical Society of America (herein "MMSA") is concerned that the Environmental Protection Agency (herein "EPA") may establish an arsenic standard for public drinking water sources that cannot be enforced because of technical aspects related to the rule. We believe the rule you propose to establish – that of establishing a 3 or 5 microgram per liter maximum arsenic content – may not be enforceable because of the lack of a technical ability to accurately measure such arsenic levels in drinking water on a commercial basis.Entire letter.




“Quenching the Asbestos Fire”, Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute and a syndicated columnist, September 13, 2003. By one estimate, four in 10 claims for asbestosis or pleural disease proved on review to be either exaggerated or false. Yet analysts warn that 2.7 million more cases could be filed, most by people exhibiting few if any symptoms of disease. 

"Fear of Cancer is Enough to Collect”, Anne Gearan, San Francisco Chronicle. She reports that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled, in Norfolk and Western Railway vs. Ayers, No. 01-963, that fear that one might develop cancer from asbestos exposure is sufficient grounds to collect damages. Six retire railway workers will receive $4.9 million because they are afraid they might develop cancer from prior asbestos exposure. Here come the phony claims and lots of ‘fear’.

“Asbestos Policy”, American Geological Institute’s Governmental Affairs Program, 7-23-03 . Libby , Montana , home of the now defunct W.R. Grace & Co. vermiculite mine, has brought a renewed interest in the health dangers of asbestos. A series of Seattle Post-Intelligencer articles beginning in November 1999 about the Libby vermiculite mine and the nearly 200 asbestos-related deaths there over the last 40 years prompted a public outcry, two federal investigations into government agencies' failure to warn Libby residents and workers, declaration of a Superfund site, and a renewed interested in banning asbestos products. Asbestos is classified as a Group A carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) due to health risks associated with inhalation, including lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis.  

“Asbestos Litigation Choking Courts with False Claimants”, Dana Joel Gattuso, Environment News, May 1, 2004, published by The Heartland Institute. 730,000 asbestos claims have been filed ... and most are made by healthy, unimpaired individuals. The flood of unmerited claims has bankrupted so many defendant companies that legitimate victims suffering from asbestos exposure have been squeezed out, unable to collect compensation that is rightfully theirs. Asbestos lawsuits are taking their toll on the U.S. economy, costing businesses a whopping $70 billion and bankrupting 66-plus companies. Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz estimates asbestos lawsuits have killed close to 60,000 jobs.

“Asbestos Exposure Limit; Proposed Rule”, MSHA of Dept. of Labor, 30 CFR Parts 56, 57, and 71; July 29, 2005. A new proposed rule would reduce miners’ permissible exposure limit (PEL) to asbestos from 2.0 fibers/cm3 to 0.1 fibers/cu3; the short-term excursion limit would be reduced from 10 fibers/cm3 over 15 minutes to 1.0 fiber/cm3 per 30 minutes. The same asbestos minerals would be covered.

“Asbestos”, U.S. EPA. This information site has many links to web sites that address a great number of issues related to asbestos.

“Texas Curtails Runaway Asbestos Litigation”, James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, July 2005, p. 1. Texas enacted legislation setting strict medical criteria for claims of asbestos related personnal injury. Only persons who have been diagnosed with asbestos related illnesses are eligible for compensation.

“Asbestos Exposure In The Mining Industry: A Case for Revising the MSHA Standard”, Blumenstein and Ross, Mining Engineering, April 2005, pp. 76-80.  A rationale is presented for lowering the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of average airborne asbestos dust from MSHA’s 5 fibers/cc set in 1978 to 2 fibers/cc.

“The Asbestos Answer”, Marshall Manson, Center for Individual Freedom, 3/10/2005. There is a proposal before Congress to create a fund with money from businesses and insurers, not taxpayers, large enough to handle current and future complaints. Such a fund will ensure swift justice for the real victims and provide certainty for companies now facing an endless number of asbestos claims.

New Hope for Asbestos Litigation Reform”, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, January 2005, p. 4-5. The status of a well-designed trust fund that would benefit plaintiffs rather than lawyers is still being debated.

Asbestos Litigation Reform, The Heartland Institute. More than 30 documents about asbestos litigation are internet linked.


Benefits of Mining 

Annual Review of Mining in the USA, 2000, US Geological Survey, Mining Engineering, May 2001, pp. 33-112. Charts quantifying the role of non-fuel minerals in the US economy. Chart of USA reliance on imported minerals. Summaries for many minerals and metals. 

Copper Adds $6.2 billion to Arizona Economy, Mining Engineering, SME, July 2000, p.20. The Western Economic Analysis Center said that the $6.2B was 3.5 times the value of Arizona copper mine production in 1998. The number of jobs created was 5x the number of workers in copper production. .

"Baby" Gains 42ST, Engineering & Mining Journal, May 2000, p. 16jj. The Minerals Information Institute's estimate of how many pounds of minerals, metals, and energy fuels the average American "Baby" will use during a lifetime increased 42 short tons during 1999. The estimate is now 3.7 million pounds for the average American, i.e., 48,427 lbs/year. The usage is increasing. 

'Web Site Launched to Provide Information on Gold Mining’, National Mining Association, December 2005. The NMA and the world’s gold producers have launched a new website that describes gold mining practices including the role of gold in modern society, where and how gold is produced, and the laws / regulations that govern gold mining.

“Raw Materials and Technology Fuel U. S. Economic Growth”, T. D. Kelly, Mining Engineering, December 2002, pp. 17-21. The quality of life in the USA has improved dramatically since the year 1900 and the application of knowledge about the Earth’s materials, their extraction, and fabrication into products helped create this change.

“Peabody’s Coal Mines Provide Millions to Navajo, Hopi Economies”,
Mining Engineering magazine of SME, December 2002, p. 13. Peabody’s coal operations put more than $110 million into Navajo and Hopi communities in 2001; wages account for $58 million. Over 30 years they have put in more than $2 billion in the form of royalties, taxes, wages, benefits, and scholarships. Royalties and taxes provide 30% of the Navajo Nation’s general budget and 80% of the Hopi’s general budget. 650 jobs are created of which more than 90% are Native Americans. The average coal miner’s wage was $45,000, twice the average wage in all of Arizona.

Publications, Mineral Industries, U.S. Census Bureau.
These publications have many statistics for the year 2002, both by industry and by subject. For example: industry wide statistics, employment, type of operations, products, services, supplies, machinery purchased, fuels consumed.

“NMA Member Companies Respond As Good Neighbors To Natural Disasters”, N
MA Mining Week, National Mining Association, September 2, 2005, p. 1. The mining industry has a well justified reputation as a good citizen in many communities throughout the world. Regarding the devastation after hurricane Katrina, Phelps Dodge is contributing $1 million to the Red Cross; Peabody Energy is giving $0.5 million to affected electric utilities and the Red Cross; Caterpillar is matching employee and retiree contributions and working with its dealers to make equipment and personnel available for recovery and cleanup efforts; and many others are contributing in various ways.

“National Mining Association Announces Title Sponsorship”, National Mining Association, July 2005. The Pete Dye Golf Course in Bridgeport, W.Va. is a high-profile example of private sector mining reclamation. So, the Pete Dye Classic on the PGA tour will be sponsored this year by the National Mining Association. Reclaimed mine sites have been cultivated and now are the sites for public schools, tree farms, airports, golf courses, shopping centers and housing developments.

 “Gold mining increasingly important to developing countries”, World Gold Council, 26 May, 2005. Gold mining is becoming more important to developing countries. They produce 72% of the world’s gold and their production increased 84% in 2004. Gold revenues bring substantial improvement in their social and financial infrastructure.

“Annual Review of the Minerals Business in the United States in 2002”, Mining Engineering, SME, May 2003. Diagrams the role of nonfuel minerals in the US economy and relates it to the GDP. Shows the U.S.’s reliance on imported minerals. Gives employment and productivity data. Gives production data by commodity and by state/region. 



“Bonding Issues”, Northwest Mining Association website, Issues, September 18, 2002. An in-depth discussion of bonding issues by Laura Skaer of the NWMA.

“Environmental Suits May Need Bond”, Judy Fahys, The Salt Lake Tribune, Jan. 29, 2006. Three bills before the Utah legislature would require that a bond be posted before an appeal of a state or federal agency’s action could be filed. The bonds would cover costs such as employee pay and benefits, lost profits, and ‘consequential costs’ like swelling construction costs or lost tax revenues while the case was being appealed. The conflict will be between companies or state agencies who have no representation when aggrieved by lawsuits and individuals or organizations that will be impeded in seeking review of projects. Read the Article.

The Future of Gold Mining in North America …, James Komadina, Colorado Mining, Colorado Mining Association, April 2001, p. 12. If we accept bonding as a fact of life covering the entire mining project we might expect benefits in return, benefits such as entry to the land under prescribed conditions, permitting without undue delays, construction and operation without whimsical interference, and regulations designed to protect the land user as well as the landowner.  



Climate Change

“Russian Scientists Reassert Opposition to Kyoto Accord”, Andre Illarionov, Environment News. Published by The Heartland Institute, September 1, 2004, p.10. Russian President Vladimir Putin's top economic advisor, Andre Illarionov, reaffirmed the opposition of Russian scientists to the Kyoto Protocol even though Russia was heavily encouraged by European countries to accept the treaty. 

"Nature Admits Widely Cited Global Warming Graph Was Erroneous”, Iain Murray and Myron Ebell, Environment News published by The Heartland Institute, September 1, 2004. Nature magazine finally corrected the 1998 article by Mann, Bradley, and Hughes that showed the ‘hockey stick’ shape of global temperatures during the past 600 years. The curve showed that nearly all of the temperature increase during that time occurred during the past century. It was featured as proof of global warming in the IPCC’s 2001 report. The ‘proof’ of global warming is now in doubt. 

“Connecticut Global Warming Bill Will Pump up Energy Prices”, James M. Taylor, Environment News, May 1, 2004, published by The Heartland Institute. Energy prices and unemployment in Connecticut are expected to spike if the state legislature passes a greenhouse gas control measure. Charles River Associates concluded that a "conservative estimate is that costs per Connecticut household of meeting these caps would be between $700 and $1,300 per year over the next three decades, accompanied by the loss of about 20,000 jobs. Connecticut's state product would be reduced by about 1.3 percent from baseline levels by 2020 ... The state's budget problems would be worsened with lower wages and incomes leading to a loss in tax collections of about $250 million per year by 2010."

‘Latest Global Warming Claims Are Flawed, Inflated’, Patrick J. Michaels, Environment and Climate News, May 1, 2004, published by The Heartland Institute. Five recently issued gloom-and-doom articles on global warming and climate change contain major flaws, inflated claims, and sweeping generalizations. But what remains unanswered is how this stuff continues to make it through the scientific review process and editorial boards of major newspapers and magazines.

Aliens Cause Global Warming, by Michael Crichton. This is the text of a Caltech Michelin Lecture given Jan. 17, 2003. "I am going to argue that extraterrestrials lie behind global warming. Or to speak more precisely, I will argue that a belief in extraterrestrials has paved the way, in a progression of steps, to a belief in global warming."

“Soft Kyoto’ Strategy Raises Energy Concerns”, Marlo Lewis, Jr. Environment & Climate News, p.2, The Heartland Institute, October 1, 2003. Determined to pass energy legislation before Congress adjourned for its August recess, Senate leaders brokered a deal replacing this year’s Republican-drafted bill (S. 14) with last year’s Democrat-drafted bill (S. 517). S.517 is an onerous bill for the public and for business and mimics much of the Kyoto Protocol.

20th Century Warming Not Unprecedented, Experts Testify, David Wojick, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, October 1, 2003, p3. Two scientists debate if the measurable warming of the Earth’s atmosphere over the past 100 years is natural or manmade.

“The Science of Climate Change”, Senate Floor Statement by U.S. Sen. James M. Inhofe (R-Oklahoma), Chairman, Committee on Environment and Public Works, July 28, 2003, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, October 1, 2003, p.4. Quote, “After studying the issue over the last several years, I believe that the balance of the evidence offers strong proof that natural variability is the overwhelming factor influencing climate.”

“McCain-Lieberman Will Be Costly, Energy Department Warns”, James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, October 1, 2003, p.5. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) has released an analysis of the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003, sponsored by Senators John McCain (R-Arizona) and Joseph Lieberman (D-Connecticut) that shows it would have far-reaching negative effects on the American economy.

Bush Administration Launches Climate Research Plan, James M. Taylor, The Heartland Institute, 09/01/2003 .  The Bush administration on July 24 announced an unprecedented 10-year research plan to better understand how, and to what extent, human activity may be affecting the Earth’s climate.  

“Climate Change Policy”, American Geological Institute’s Government Affairs Program, 8-1-03.  This is a compilation of recent activities by various groups in the continuing dialogue about climate change.

  “Earth Day 2003 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment”, National Center for Public Policy Research. April 21, 2003. Many myths and the facts to refute them are presented. 

  “It's Time to Debate Global Warming Again”, National Center for Public Policy, May 7, 2003. The debate is again coming to the Senate. Global warming hearings are scheduled in the Senate and consideration of the Senate Energy Bill, S. 14 is underway. Numerous amendments relating to global warming are expected to be proposed, and debate is expected to be contentious. 

"Faulty Statistics Plague IPCC Report", James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, May 2003. Expert says global warming fears are based on bad data. The former president of the International Association of Official Statistics (IAOS) has challenged the statistical basis for climate change fears, contending the global warming scenarios developed by the United Nations’ International Panel on Climate Change are flawed due to the use of unrealistic data.

  "A Climate Change Primer: It’s the Sun!", Jay Lehr and Richard S. Bennett, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, May 2003. Part one of a three-part series. The sun supplies the energy to warm the Earth. The atmosphere, which is mostly transparent to the incoming sunlight, absorbs outgoing reflected or internal thermal radiation to keep the Earth warmer than it otherwise would be. This absorbing property of the atmosphere is the "greenhouse effect." Gases in the atmosphere that absorb infrared radiation, thereby preventing some of the outgoing energy from returning to space, are called greenhouse gases. More fundamentals about climate change are presented.

"Global Warming Policies Could Unfairly Harm Minorities and the Poor", Rep. John Peterson (R-PA), National Center for Public Policy Research, September 2001. The burdens of meeting the demands of the Kyoto Protocol would cut minority income by 10% and white income by only 4.5%.

"Questions and Answers on Global Warming", National Center for Public Policy Research.

"Global Climate Change Policy Book", The White House, February 2002. The President announced a new approach to the challenge of global climate change. This approach is designed to harness the power of markets and technological innovation.

"United States Global Climate Change Policy", U.S. State Department Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Fact Sheet, February 27, 2003. The United States will achieve this goal by cutting its GHG intensity -- how much it emits perunit of economic activity – by 18% over the next 10 years. A variety of projects and their costs are discussed.

"Eight Reasons Why ‘Global Warming’ Is a Scam", Joseph L. Bast, The Heartlander, The Heartland Institute, February 2003, p.1. Concern over ‘global warming’ is overblown and misdirected. Here are eight reasons that this scam should be scuttled before it destroys millions of job and billions of wealth.

"Climate Stewardship Act of 2003", S.139, sponsored by Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [CT], introduced 1/9/2003 and now in Committee on Environment and Public Works. This bill calls for mandatory reductions in emissions of all greenhouse gases to 2000 levels by 2010 and to 1990 levels by 2016. It calls for a cap and trade system. It would establish a greenhouse gas reporting system. Meanwhile the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that US greenhouse gas emissions fell by 1.2% during 2001.

"Number of Killer Storms & Droughts Increasing Worldwide", World Water Council, February 27, 2003. Economic losses from weather and flood catastrophes have increased ten-fold over the past 50 years, partially the result of rapid climate changes, the World Water Council (WWC) says in its report. These rapid climate changes are seen in more intense rainy seasons, longer dry seasons, stronger storms, shifts in rainfall and rising sea levels. More disastrous floods and droughts have been the most visible manifestation of these changes.

National Policy Analysis #420: A Global Warming Primer, Gerald Marsh (physicist at Argonne National Laboratory), National Center For Public Policy Research, July 2002. The New York Times continues to get it wrong. There is absolutely no consensus that carbon dioxide and other heap-trapping gases are capable of causing global warming. Furthermore, NASA measurements have shown no warming in the last 30 years.

Over 100 brief papers on virtually every aspect of the climate change debate can be found on The National Center's Global Warming Information Center web page at:

Bonn Global Warming Earth Summit Fact Kit, Tom and Gretchen Randall, The National Center for Public Policy Research, January 15, 2002. A variety of charges about global warming and responses to them are made, with references.

 Questions and Answers on Global Warming, Tom and Gretchen Randall, The National Center for Public Policy Research. Questions and answers about global warming, with references.

Media Misconceptions Help Lead to Public Fear of Global Warming, Chris Burger and John P. McGovern, The National Center for Public Policy Research, March 5, 2002. Scientific data seldom supports media reports about global warming.

Emission of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, (Report#:DOE/EIA-0573(2000), November 9, 2001(Next Release: November 2002). U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases in 2000 totaled 1,906 million metric tons carbon equivalent, 2.5 percent more than in 1999 (1,860 million metric tons carbon equivalent). The increase from 1999 to 2000 is nearly double the 1.3-percent average annual growth rate of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2000 and the 1.3-percent increase from 1998 to 1999. The increase from 1999 to 2000 is attributed to strong growth in carbon dioxide emissions due to a return to more normal weather, decreased hydroelectric power generation that was replaced by fossil-fuel power generation, and strong economic growth (a 4.1-percent increase in gross domestic product).

Ice Shelf Collapse Triggers Debate, Paul J. Georgia, Environment & Climate News, May 2002. The Antarctic is cooling and yet some of the ice shelf is breaking away. Confusing? Actually, a companion article by John Daly says, "All ice shelves that project themselves out into open water must break up eventually, simply due to contact with the warmer water and the tidal stresses. It’s evolution."

Expect Future Global Warming to be ‘Minuscule, Adolf Giger, Environment & Climate News, May 2002. If linear extrapolation of satellite temperature measurements of the atmosphere is done, the temperature increase over the next 100 years will be 0.26 degrees centigrade, which would be a minuscule amount of global warming.

Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

Canada’s Perspective on Climate Change 

Global Climate Coalition Disbands, S. Fred Singer, Environment & Climate News, April 2000, p. 6.  The Global Climate Coalition (GCC), a Washington-based group that once was the dominant voice of U.S. industry on the climate change issue, has announced its "deactivization."  In recent years, many major companies resigned from the group, shifting their memberships to softer-line organizations such as the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Business Council for Sustainable Energy. GCC became a coalition of trade associations rather than companies.

Voluntary greenhouse gas reporting program continues to grow, Mining Week, February 15, 2002, National Mining Association. A total of 222 U.S. companies and other organizations reported to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program undertaking 1,882 projects in 2000 to reduce or sequester greenhouse gases.  This is 2.7% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the USA during the year 2000.

NMA supports President Bush's climate, multi-emissions plans, Mining Week, February 15, 2002, National Mining Association.  The Bush administration's Climate Action Plan and multi-emissions policy will meet environmental objectives while allowing the continued use of clean and affordable coal-based electricity essential for economic growth.

Presidential proposals deal with issues overhanging coal use, Mining Week, February 15, 2002, National Mining Association. President Bush proposed environmental initiatives that could resolve the open questions of clean air regulation and climate policy that have overshadowed and retarded the expansion of coal use in electric-power generation.  An overview of the initiatives is given.

Global Warming and the Anti-Technology Movement, James M. Taylor, Intellectual Ammunition, The Heartland Institute, Sept/Oct 2001, p.6. Carbon sequestration is a way of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere without harming the world’s economies.

Greenhouse Policy Without Regrets, Jonathan H. Adler, Competitive Enterprise Institute, July 2000. This is a free market approach to the uncertain risks of climate change.

Update on Climate Change Policy (9-18-01). This issue is of great interest those whose jobs in the petroleum and coal industries would be directly affected by restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions.

Carbon Sinks in 2100, Baliunas & Soon, Environment & Climate News, February 2001. Forests and soil are likely to store more carbon in a warmer world. Thus, less CO2 in the air and less global warming than predicted. 

Climate Policy in Flux After Kyoto Reversal, Coal Age, May 2001, p.26. President Bush rejects the Kyoto Protocol but intends to work with Congress on a multi-pollutant strategy to require power plants to reduce emissions of SO2, NOx, and mercury. CO2 reductions are not a part of his strategy. 

Global Warming, Dr. Arthur Robinson, Access to Energy, March 2000, vol 27, no. 8, p. 4. Global warming has been occurring for 300+ years. Many environmentalists use the phrase 'global warming' to refer to human caused global warming. There are two different meanings here and they need to be distinguished from each other. 

Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, The National Academy of Sciences, 2001. The NAS committee generally agrees with the assessment of human-caused climate change presented in the IPCC Working Group I scientific report, but seeks here to articulate more clearly the level of confidence that can be ascribed to those assessments and the caveats that need to be attached to them.

Climate Change Negotiations, Senate Panel Moves Legislation, AGI Government Affairs Monthly Review, July 2001. Sen. Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) and Sen. Ted Stevens (R-AK) introduced legislation to centralize climate change response efforts in the US to begin a US strategy for dealing with climate change, as promised by the Bush administration. The Climate Change Strategy and Technology Innovation Act, S. 1008, amends the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to develop a United States Climate Change Response Strategy with a goal of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere without adverse economic impacts. A National Office of Climate Change Response will be created within the Executive Office of the President with authorized funds of up to $5 million a year until 2011. Other goals of the bill include aligning the climate change response strategy with a national energy policy, promoting sound national environmental policy, creating an independent review board to report to Congress to ensure that goals are achieved, and the establishment of a research and development program office in the Department of Energy (DOE) for climate change response technology. The Senate Governmental Affairs Committee passed S. 1008 on 8/2/2001. 

Fact Sheets, Environment Canada, 

Issue Briefs, Congressional Research Service, current, texts of Kyoto Protocol, the IPCC s global climate change reports, and much more. 

“Kyoto’s Big Con”, Wall Street Journal, 1.19.2006. The biggest fans of the Kyoto Protocol are the Europeans and generally they are failing to comply. In contrast, the USA is the global villain and they are doing very well. 13 of the 15 EU signatories are on track to miss their 2010 emissions targets. The Greek and Canadian politicians claimed that the USA didn’t have a ‘global conscience’. Yet, their emissions rose 23% and 24%, respectively, since 1990 versus only a 15.8% rise in the USA.

"Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions (2001)”, Committee on the Science of Climate Change, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council. This book discusses the factors that could change the climate and reviews historical climate changes. It makes forecasts of future climate and assess progress in climate science.

“Minnesota Team Abandons Effort to ‘Prove’ Global Warming”, Jay Lehr, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, July 2005, p.8. Two ‘adventurers’ bent on proving their preconceived notions of global warming by making a trip to the North Pole were forced to abandon their quest by extreme cold weather. A few observations taken out of context do not ‘prove’ global warming. E.g., melting glaciers. There are about 160,000 glaciers in the world; only 63,000 have been inventoried, and only a few hundred have been studied. R. J. Braithwaite studied 246 glaciers over the past 50 years and found that some were melting, almost as many were growing, and some were stable. Conclusion: “There is no obvious global trend of increasing glacier melt in recent years.” Similar variations in data apply to the broken ice shelves off Antarctica.

“Recent Global Warmth Is Natural, Benefits Humans”, Sallie Baliunas, Environmental & Climate News, July 2005, p.9. A thoughtful article about the history of global warming and cooling. We are now coming out of a cooler period into more ‘normal’ global temperatures. Colder weather shortens life expectancy so warmer temperatures are good. The storminess of the world 400 years ago was much greater than during the past 100 years.

“Half-Baked Alaska”, P. J. Michaels, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, June 2005, p.16. The Alaska Climate Research Center (taxpayer funded) writes, ‘When analyzing the total time period from 1951-2001, warming is observed. However, the 25-year trends for 1951-1975 and 1977-2001 both display cooling.’ That’s right! The past 50 years in Alaska have been cooling except for a one-year, mysterious ‘burp’ in the Pacific Ocean temperature around 1976. It’s not likely that one-year ‘burp’ was caused by man.

“Playing It Cool”, Investor’s Business Daily, August 1, 2005, p. A16. The Kyoto Protocol is costly and ineffective. Tom Wigley, a climatologist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research who often sides with green groups, conceded that global temperature will rise by 1.94 degrees Centigrade by 2100 with Kyoto and without it the increase will arrive in 2094, only 6 years earlier.

“What Are Greenhouse Gases?”, Energy Information Administration of Department of Energy, 2001.  What are sources of greenhouse gases (GHG)?  Why are GHG levels increasing?  Estimates of future emissions.  Easy to read graphs.

“Climate Scientist Quits IPCC, Blasts Politicized ‘Preconceived Agendas’”, James Taylor, Environment & Cllimate News, The Heartland Institute, April 2005, p. 1.  Chris Landsea, a leader in relating hurricanes and climate change, resigned from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change citing the IPCC subverted and compromised his conclusions.  Landsea’s open letter to the community is reproduced.

“Important U. S. Climate Program Is Unheralded”, Duane Freese, Environment & Climate News, April 2005, p. 7.  President Bush’s initiative called ‘Methane to Markets (M2M)’ has received very little press compared to the Kyoto Protocol’s sole emphasis on carbon dioxide.  M2M’s objective is to reduce the greenhouse gas methane (which is 20 to 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide) by 1% of all releases caused by human activity, e.g., plug leaks in gas lines, capture it from landfills, and remove it from coal mines.

Malthusian Warming”, Roy Spencer, Tech Central Station, 3/23/05. Two studies suggest that even if we stop producing greenhouse gases immediately, global temperatures will continue to increase for decades to come because the oceans will take that long to equilibrate with the atmosphere.

Kyoto Causing Economic Anguish in Japan, Britain”, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, January 2005, p. 15. Both Japan and Britain are finding that compliance with the Kyoto Protocol means losing jobs and money. It also implies huge increases in nuclear and wind power.



Coal, CO2
“How to Catch a Farmer”, Joseph Bast, The Heartlander by the Heartland Institute, August 2003, p. 1. Environmentalists are trying to entice farmers into joining the global warming bandwagon by offering to pay them to manage their soil to increase the amount of carbon it stores or “sequesters.” From a distance this offer looks pretty tempting ... but closer examination exposes a trap farmers should stay clear of.

“Maine Passes Carbon Dioxide Law”, James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, October 12, 2003. The new law requires the state to create a climate change action plan by July 2004 to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2010; 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2020; and ultimately by as much as 80 percent. Greenhouse gas reduction plans have now been implemented independent of the legislative process in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 

“Satellites Show Earth is Greener”, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, School of Forestry, Univ. of Montana, Science News, Vol. 164, No. 1, July 5, 2003, p.13. Daily observations from space between 1982 and 1999 indicate an increase of 6% in the Earth’s vegetation during that time. It is estimated that this increase has been primarily caused by an extra 12.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide fertilizer that plants absorbed from the atmosphere during the past 17 years. More plants and animals. How wonderful! 

"New Report Decries Eco Scare Tactics", Bonner R. Cohen, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, May 2003. Responding to an ACSH report titled Are Children More Vulnerable to Environmental Chemicals?, former U.S. Surgeon General Koop warns that real risks to children go unaddressed while attention is focused on purely hypothetical perils. Chemical contamination of the environment in the U.S. has declined over the past 20 years, the report notes, and the data concludes there is no scientific evidence to support the claim that children are more vulnerable to all environmental chemicals. The report’s findings stand in sharp contrast to the widely reported scare campaigns targeting children and chemicals.

  "Study Links Excessive Coal Regulations and Increased Adult Mortality", The Drift of Things section of Mining Engineering, April 2003, p.4. If coal was replaced as the primary fuel for USA electricity generation, an extra 14,000 to 25,000 premature adult deaths per year would result, mostly in lower income families. For more information on the study by Ralph Keeney and Daniel Klein, go to

  "Appeals Court: Coalbed Water A Pollutant", Becky Bohrer, Billings Gazette, April 11, 2003. A federal appeals court ruled that water from coalbed methane wells is a pollutant -- "industrial waste" -- under the federal Clean Water Act. The decision reversed a U.S. District Court ruling from last summer.

  "ALEC Offers Guidebook on State Greenhouse Gas Regulation", Bob Adams, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, May 2003. With the failure of the Kyoto Protocol at the federal level, several states are advancing so-called "son-of-Kyoto" legislation at the state level to eliminate affordable hydrocarbon-based fuels--such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas--from the nation’s energy mix, according to a guidebook for state legislators prepared by the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). ALEC’s guidebook--offering state legislators policy tools and model bills--is designed to assist states in evaluating fuel supplies and energy production and the economic impact of carbon dioxide or multi-pollutant standards.

  "A Deep-six Fix", Betsy Carpenter, U.S. News & World Report, February 10, 2003, pp. 78-80. The scare of global warming is prompting attempts at carbon sequestration by burying carbon dioxide in the ocean’s depths or underground. This is a status report on what companies and countries are doing.

  "Carbon Dioxide is Good for the Environment", John Carlisle, National Center for Public Policy Research, April 2001.

  "Top 10 Coal-producing States", Coal Age, January 2003, p. 7.

Thousands of short tons as of 12/21/02.

State YTD’02  YTD’01  %Change
Wyoming   364,761  356,961 2.2
W. Virginia  149,416  158,081  (5.5)
Kentucky  121,926   130,683 (6.7)
Pennsylvania  68,816  75,351  (8.7)
Texas  44,283  44,227  0.1
Montana  36,676  38,276  (4.2)
Indiana  35,482  36,366  (2.4)
Colorado  34,335  32,636  5.2
Illinois  33,139   33,280 (0.4)
N. Dakota  29,307   29,818 (1.7)

  "Forecast Returns to Normal for 2003", Coal Age, January 2003, pp. 22-26. Prices, environmental issues, and the economy top the list of concerns. Data about % of total capacity, production forecasts, planned expenditures, survey of problems.

  "A Deep-six Fix", U.S. News & World Report, February 10, 2003, pp. 78-80. Fixing or storing carbon dioxide is described. Storing it in forests is questioned.

Bush's Clear Skies Initiative: What Does it Mean for Coal?, Sarah Noecker, Coal Age, April 1, 2002. The Clear Skies Initiative proposes to cut emissions of SO2, NOx , and mercury by about 70% from current levels by 2018. The second part, the Global Climate Change Initiative, sets a goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the next 10 years.

The CO2 Issue, Greening Earth Society, October 2001.  and 

What’s Wrong With Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emissions?, Ross McKitrick, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics, The University of Guelph, Guelph Ontario Canada.  This paper was a briefing before the USA Congress on October 11, 2001.  All approaches to controlling CO2 emissions are flawed and those claiming  to be ‘market oriented’ aren’t worth pursuing.,02191.cfm  

Pollution Trading In  La La Land, James L. Johnston, PolicyBot Series by Heartland Institute, publication #2303405, 1994.  A substantial criticism, from an economist who favors free markets, of claims that emissions trading programs can function as well as private markets. Includes three letter responses, with a rejoinder by Johnston. and click PolicyBot.

“Electricity from Coal Empowers America”, Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED), March 2002.  Using abundant U.S. coal reserves to generate electricity creates economic empowerment for millions of American businesses and working families.  That is the finding of a new study by a team of economists working at Pennsylvania State University.

Performance Targets for Coal Generation. This chart by the Coal Utilization Research Council shows industry’s future expectations for capital cost, efficiency, pollution control, and waste utilization.

Regulation of Active Coal Mines, Office of Surface Mining’s Annual Report for 2000, pp. 20-35. Summary report includes new rulings, significant court decisions, statistics by state, and more.

Coal Industry Leaders Meet to Discuss Methane Issues, W. R. Yernberg, Mining Engineering, July 2000, p59-61. The production, uses, and environmental issues surrounding coal bed methane are described. 

‘Coal, the Comeback King, Shows Promise for the Long Term’, Energy Prospects, 12.13.2006. As natural gas prices soar and oil resources grow increasingly coveted, coal production is roaring to a new and robust life.

‘EIA Sees Coal Gaining’, Mining Week of National Mining Association, 1.20.2006, p.2. The Energy Information Administration forecasts that coal will be one of the largest gainers (to 54% of energy markets) between now and the year 2030.

“The Drift of Things”, Mining Engineering, February 2004.  Coal production in 2004 with be the second highest on record, 1.16 billion tons, mainly due to the 4% increase in GDP.  Most of the coal will be used to generate electricity, 1.05 billion tons.


Corporate Environmentalism

Planting Trees Between a Rock and a Hard Place, originally published in the 2000 Virginia Tech Research Magazine. Forests can restore surface mined land, says Jim Burger. In 1999, the Society of American Foresters gave their reforestation award to a mining company for the first time.

The Culture of Fear: A Reader's Guide, Environment & Climate News. In spite of public fears, the real world is getting healthier and safer. The book, 'It's Getting Better All the Time' by Moore and Simon shows how. It's available from Cato Institute at 

Common Ground, Dr. Terry Mudder, Bulletin of the Northwest Mining Association, March-April, 2000, p. 1. A call-to-action for the minerals business. We have not conveyed our messages to the public. We need to open our doors and hearts to the public. We must win their hearts and minds before we can mine. 

“Responsible Gold”, Northwest Mining Association, 2005. This interactive site will respond to your questions. One link is to the National Mining Association’s site titled, U.S. Laws and Regulations Governing gold Mining ion Private and Federal Lands that outlines much of the permitting process that a new mine performs.

“Peabody Joins Effort to Build Near-zero-emissions Coal Plant”, Yahoo’s Bizjournal, 9/13/05. Eight companies have formed the FutureGen Industrial Alliance to work with the U. S. Department of Energy to design, build, and operate the world’s first electricity and hydrogen production plant.

“Newmont accuser in Indonesia admits accusations were ‘premature’ and unsupported”, National Mining Association, 2/18/05. Jane Pangemanan, an Indonesian doctor, said the accusations she made, claiming that tailings produced by Newmont’s Indonesian subsidiary caused the disease suffered by some residents of Buyat Pantai village, “were premature because there was never any scientific, comprehensive, detailed and integrated proof.” She has retracted the accusations.



Court Cases

Appeals Court Throws Out Mountaintop Ruling, Steve Fiscor, Coal Age, May 2001, p. 11. This year the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals in Richmond, Virginia tossed out most of a legal victory for the Highlands Conservancy and other citizen groups over how West Virginia regulates mountaintop mining. This is a major victory for many surface mine operators in central Appalachia. 

Court's Decision in Wetlands Case Gives New Life to Property Rights, Betsy McCaughey, Investors Business Daily, July 9, 2001, p.A20. The Supreme Court ruled in Palazzolo vs Rhode Island that the government may have to compensate owners when regulations prevent them from using their property as they planned, even if they acquired the property after the rules went into effect.

Supreme Court Strikes Down Bird Habitat Rule, Environment & Climate News, Maureen Martin, March 2001. The Army Corp of Engineers went too far in its interpretation of navigable waters of the USA. .



Coloradans Opposing the Unfair Shutdown Amendment, Colorado Mining Association, July 2000. Talking points to counter the proposed amendment to ban cyanide in new open pit gold/silver operations. The amendment never made it to the ballot. 

“Court Upholds Challenge To Summit County Mining Ban”, news release from Colorado Mining Association, 8/5/05. A ruling by the county commissioners of Summit County, Colorado, that would ban the mining industry’s use of cyanide in the county has been invalidated by the Summit County District Court. The court’s decision can be read at

Montana Ballot Initiative I-147  would allow the use of solutions containing cyanide in gold and silver mining, but only if stringent new criteria are met. The vote (Nov 04) went against the initiative.   



Depletion Allowance

Repeal of Depletion Allowance Introduced Again”, Mining Week, National Mining Association, March 4, 2005. NMA views the depletion allowance as an essential tax provision that helps mining companies recapture capital investment.


Dose vs Chemical; Which is the Poison?

 Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

DDT Use in U.S. Linked to Premature Births in the 1960's, press release of 7/12/01 about a new study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the study appears in July 14, 2001 issue of The Lancet magazine. Heavy U.S. use of DDT before 1966 may have produced a previously undetected epidemic of premature births.

Chemical Toxicity: A Matter of Massive Miscalculation, Jay Lehr, Environment & Climate News, March 2001, p. 18. It is the dose that is the poison, not the chemical. 

“Earth Day 2003 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment”, National Center for Public Policy Research. April 21, 2003. Many myths and the facts to refute them are presented. 


Endangered Species Act

‘Accounting for Species: The True Costs of the Endangered Species Act’, Randy T. Simmons and Kimberly Frost, April 2004, Property and Environmental Research (PERC). Without accurate costs of the Endangered Species Act, the debate over whether the law is effective will be misinformed. This study, Accounting for Species, analyzes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s recent report, Three-Year Summary of Federal and State Endangered Species Expenditures, Fiscal Years 1998- 2000. In its report, the Fish and Wildlife Service provided some costs of implementing the act. However, the authors of Accounting for Species reveal that the Fish and Wildlife Service report understates the government’s costs of implementing the act and totally fails to include economy wide losses.

“Governors Call for Endangered Species Act Reform”, James M. Taylor, Environment News, May 1, 2004, published by The Heartland Institute. The nation's governors urged more state participation in federal endangered species programs. They issued a statement of concern over several facets and implementation strategies of the ESA, and encouraged more grassroots participation to make the act more effective and citizen-friendly. Nearly 1,300 species of fish, wildlife, and plants have been listed as threatened or endangered since inception of the ESA in 1974--but only nine species have recovered sufficiently to be removed from the list. The governors observed that 1) funding for ESA should be enhanced to address the growing list of threatened and endangered species; 2) ESA needs a clear methodology for delisting recovered species. Even when actual recovery has occurred, species frequently are not delisted, leading to aggravated public frustrations; and 3) states should be allowed to comment, participate, or take the lead before the federal government makes listing or delisting decisions.

‘Accounting for Species: The True Costs of the Endangered Species Act’, Randy T. Simmons and Kimberly Frost, Property and Environmental Research Center, April 2004. It is revealed that the Fish and Wildlife Service drastically understates the government’s costs of implementing the Endangered Species Act. They conclude that an accurate accounting of annual costs would be in the billions, not millions.

“Rules Protecting Endangered Species Endanger Defense Readiness Instead”, Dana Joel Gattuso, National Center for Public Policy, July 2003. According to the Pentagon, federal regulations governing endangered species are the number one obstacle facing defense-training efforts. As the government continues to designate more land for "critical habitat," subject to protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), a disturbingly large and growing amount of U.S. military property is off-limits to training and weapons testing.

“Earth Day 2003 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment”, National Center for Public Policy Research. April 21, 2003. Many myths and the facts to refute them are presented. 

Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

‘New York Times Promotes Great Salmon Hoax’, James Buchal, Environment & Climate News, April 2002, p.10.  Many ‘whoppers’ were told in this editorial of 2/14/02.  Actually, salmon runs this season were among the highest ever counted.  Across the United States there are thousands upon thousands of runs of chinook, coho, sockeye, and steelhead salmon–four "entire species." Only a few runs are in danger of extinction, at the edges of the species' range.  The Justice Department admitted in federal court that ‘wild’ and ‘hatchery’ fish are genetically identical.  

“Florida Adopts New Standards for Endangered Species Listings”, James A. Hoare, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, July 2005, p. 1. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has approved new standards for listing endangered species that closely mirror those of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The standards rely on objective data instead of emotional public campaigns. The standards will apply only to Florida and species within its borders; it will have no impact on the USA’s national Endangered Species Act.

“Ninth Circuit Says Environmental Activists Must Prove Harm To Species, Not Just Allege It, To Invoke Endangered Species Act”,  American Land Rights Association, 4/27/05.  The U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled for Pacific Legal Foundation, and Idaho rancher Verl Jones’ family, in a case that addresses the standard by which injunctions can be issued under the Endangered Species Act. The  ruling clarifies for the first time that environmental plaintiffs must present actual evidence that a species is likely to be harmed before an injunction can be issued against a property owner, and that a lack of evidence of past harm is indicative of the likelihood of future harm. 

Endangered Act”, Randy T. Simmons, Headwaters News. The underlying philosophy of the Act is discussed and recommendations are made for changing it. Specifically, the Act should be a ‘species act’ rather than a ‘local population act’ and it should use incentives rather than punishment.

Markets and the Environment: Friends or Foes?”, Terry L. Anderson, PERC, 9/22/2004. The Endangered Species Act is viewed differently by many people depending upon the ‘hat’ they wear, i.e., political environmentalism. Free market environmentalism is offered as an alternative. This means that those of us with full stomachs, good clothes, transportation, housing, medical care, education and so on demand and get a cleaner environment, i.e., wealthier is healthier. It also means that incentives matter, i.e., if it pays, it stays.

Sand and Gravel Industry Calls for Endangered Species Reform. The industry has put forward H.R. 2933 in Congress, Critical Habitat Reform Act. The bill would require that an economic impact analysis be conducted before designating a species-critical habitat. Comprehensive reform of the Endangered Species Act has been languishing in Congress. 



 “Gas: Who has the time to waste nine billion gallons?”, Patrick Bedard, Car and Driver magazine, August 2003, p.28. The bottom line comes out to this: traffic congestion wastes nine billion gallons of fuel in the U.S. each year, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation. That's 800 times the oil spilled by the Exxon Valdez. Car and

“Squirrel Chatter: Energy Resources in 2030, Ralph Wanger, Portfolio Advisor, Liberty Acorn Fund, June 3, 2003. An erudite commentary on energy sources in the future with the exception that nuclear is ignored.

"Nuclear's New Life? ", Investor’s Business Daily, editorial, 6/12/2003 .  The Senate passed key provisions this week designed to help get new nuclear plants built. It may signal the rebirth of atomic energy. Investors.Com Web site

“Dark Ages Redux: Will America Meet Her Future Energy Needs?”  Amy Ridenour, The National Center for Public Policy Research, August 15, 2003 . For too long, we've taken cheap, accessible energy for granted. Energy shortages will become commonplace unless this nation adopts a pro-production energy policy -- something that can be done in a safe, environmentally sensitive manner.

“Save the Earth! Drive an SUV”, Brock Yates, Car and Driver, May 2003, p.24. A tongue-in-cheek justification for driving more SUVs plus a poke at those who switch their alarmist tactics from global warming to the next ice age every generation or so. 

“Earth Day 2003 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment”, National Center for Public Policy Research. April 21, 2003. Many myths and the facts to refute them are presented. 

“Top 10 Reasons to Support Development in ANWR”, Arctic Power. Arctic Power is a grass-roots organization at Although the ‘ten reasons’ says that 1.5 million acres may be disturbed, an amendment to the Energy Policy Act of 2003 offered by Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) would limit disturbance to only 2,000 acres, 0.01% of the 19-million acre ANWR. 

“Windmills Sow Dissent for Environmentalists”, Katharine Q. Seelye, New York Times, June 5, 2003. Wind farms are generating huge turbulence within the environmental movement, as proponents view those who oppose them as heretics while opponents decry them as producing insufficient power to warrant their blight on the landscape. 

"Bush’s Call for Hydrogen Funding Fuels Debate", James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, May 2003. Experts are split on future of hydrogen technology.

 "Living Without Oil", Marianne LaVelle, U.S. News & World Report, February 17, 2003, pp. 32-39. Some alternatives to oil based fuels for cars and trucks are tantalizingly close. Attempts to reduce our dependence on foreign oil are discussed.

"A Fuel-cell Car That Works", C. Csere, Car and Driver, March 2003, p. 11. A technical description of the prototype Honda FCX fuel-cell powered car is given. It’s technically practical but economically practical only if the cost of both fuel cells and solar cells can be reduced by a factor of 10.

"The Energy Picture", North American Energy Working Group (established in spring of 2001 by the Canadian Minister of Natural Resources, the Mexican Secretary of Energy, and the U.S. Secretary of Energy), June 2002. Provides an overview of various kinds of energy and then gives the legal and regulatory framework that energy companies of each country must operate within. An index of U.S. federal agencies with energy regulatory roles is provided.

Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

Annual Energy Outlook, 2002, Energy Information Administration, DOE, March 28, 2002.  A broad outlook with production numbers and forecasts for the future is presented.

Annual Energy Outlook 2001 With Projections to 2020, Department of Energy, December 22, 2000. The report presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Natural Resources Defense Council 'Cries Wolf' Over Consultation on Bush Energy Plan, The National Center for Public Policy Research, April 5, 2002. NRDC's accusations are another attempt to wrongly make it appear that the Bush administration has an anti-environmental agenda.

View of ANWR at Night: Priceless, Jonah Goldberg, National Review Online, April 3, 2002.  Here’s another ‘take’ about drilling for oil on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

Energy Lessons Learned and To be Learned, Amory B. Lovins, Whole Earth, Winter 1998.  Verities that will astonish some and delight the rest.

Blame for High Gasoline Prices, Rep. John Duncan Jr. of Tennessee (GOP), U. S. News & World Report, May 21, 2001. p. 10. "Because rich, yuppie environmentalists are slowly but surely shutting this country down economically."

Energy Policy in the Electron Age, Mark P. Mills, Mills-McCarthy & Associates Inc., 2000. What should our energy policy be?

Coal is America's largest source of non-imported energy. It accounts for 40% of all domestic fossil fuel production and 95% of all reserves. Mining Engineering, March 2001, p. 4, SME. 

Manifesto on the California Electricity Crisis, Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. News release by Environment & Climate News,

Bush Right to Consider Opening ANWR to Oil Exploration, Jay Lehr, Environment & Climate News, April 2001, . Doing so will help consumers without hurting the environment.

The New Economy Runs on Coal, Duane Freese, Environment & Climate News, April 2001. The USA will need 1,200 new power plants during the next 20 years. Coal represents 94% of the nation's proven energy reserves.

Power Up the Power Plants, David Whitman, U.S. News & World Report, May 21, 2001, p. 37. Cheney wants more of them; we may already be building too many. 

Full Speed Ahead, Gloria Borger, U.S. News & World Report, May 21, 2001, p.29. Cheney's energy plan chooses development over sacrifice. 

Coal Use Lengthens Average Life Span, Coal Age, April 2001, p. 12. Countries with higher electricity usage have higher average life spans. 

Powerful Facts About Coal, Center for Energy and Economic Development. 

Coal Prices, Coal Age, May 2001, p13. Spot prices for Wyoming coal hit a high of $12/ton. Long term contracts (3 years) are as high as $8/ton. Recent prices were $3-$4/ton for long term contracts. Profits will be used to pay down coal company debt. 

AMWR's Eskimos Want Oil Drillling, Deroy Murdock, Rocky Mountain News, June 2, 2001, p.23a. The Eskimos desire to open the refuge deserves the immediate attention of policy makers and journalists alike.

“Distorting the Wealth of Nature”, Thomas Tanton, PERC Reports, Property and Environment Research Center, September 2005, pp. 9-11. There are too many forms of subsidies to determine which energy sources are most efficient. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 adds to the subsidies. The cost to consumers may be more than $1 billion per year.

“Congress Enacts Historic Energy Legislation”, news release from Colorado Mining Association, 8/1/05. After five years of debate, Congress approved and sent to President Bush a comprehensive energy bill that secures the role of coal in America's energy future, provides incentives for the construction of nuclear power plants, and establishes a commercial leasing program for oil shale. The "Domenici-Barton Energy Policy Act of 2005" passed the House and Senate by wide margins July 28 and 29. President Bush signed the bill on August 8, 2005.

“Wind Farms Costly for Kansans, New Study Finds”,
James Taylor, Environment & Climate News by the Heartland Institute, May 2005, p. 15. Wind farms proposed for the state of Kansas would take money out of citizens’ pockets, harm the Kansas economy, and provide few if any environmental benefits.

Energy Information Administration, U. S. Department of Energy.
This home page has a wealth of information about all aspects of energy. It’s easy to spend an hour just browsing through it. 

“Methane Hydrate Research and Development”,
Government Affairs Program of the American Geological Institute, January 25, 2005. Background information about methane hydrates, frozen mixtures of methane and water, is provided.

“German Government Study Questions Value of Wind Power”, Iain Murray and Myron Ebell, Environment & Climate News, June 2005, p.6. Germany’s energy agency released a study that concludes wind farms are an expensive and inefficient way of generating sustainable energy.

“The War Against American Energy Efficiency”,
Tim Wood, Resource Investor, July 12, 2005. Environmentalist writings have been successful in demonizing America’s energy consumption. We are simply supposed to accept that the USA is the biggest, baddest energy consumer in the world. We aren’t. Data is shown to prove it.

“Future glows for U.S. nuclear power”, Paul Studebaker,, 3/23/05.  With rising oil prices, Middle East violence and pollution concerns, the U.S. is looking to invest in other energy resources besides fossil fuels. Nuclear power is primed to make a huge comeback. PlantServices.Com 

DOE and White House launch hydrogen energy web site.  The Department of Energy and the White House have partnered together to launch a hydrogen energy web site that is designed for companies in the industry, academia, national laboratories and federal and international agencies.

“Clean-Energy Trends 2005”,, April 2005.  Clean Edge has released a report on clean energy technologies and their capability for growth in the next two decades (solar, wind, fuel cells). Read about which clean energy technologies are predicted to grow the most by 2020.

 “Nuclear Power Is The Safest Energy Source, Studies Show”, Jay Lehr, Environment & Climate News, April 2005, p. 6.  Today’s nuclear power provides the best safety performance and lowest risk of workplace accents among all commonly utilized power sources.  The second safest energy source, natural gas, has a fatality rate ten times that of nuclear power.  Many comparisons are made and several sources are cited.

“Warning: The Hydrogen Economy May Be More Distant Than It Appears”, Popular Science, January 2005, pp. 65-68. Nine myths about the hydrogen economy are discussed.,20967,927469,00.html

“EPA provides update on uranium waste studies”, Mining Week, National Mining Association, 11/5/04. A draft for review has been issued. Comments are sought before YE2004.



“Environmental Religion: A Theological Critique”, Robert H. Nelson, Case Western Reserve Law Review, vol. 55, Fall 2004. Environmentalism is one of the four great religious awakenings in American history. This religious energy has contributed to improving our environment. But, it also has led to a number of irrational policies. Much of the environmental confusion involves the idea of ‘nature’. Some people want to return to nature but most Americans no longer live in nature.

“Free Market Think Tank Gives Bush a C+ on Environmental Policy”, PERC (Property and Environment Research Center), October 21, 2004 press release. The grade is based on the administration’s adherence to respect for property rights, market trading, and decentralization. Fifteen subjects were graded. The overall grade is better than the Clinton administration received. 

Environmental Controls in Minerals Industry “Superfund: Polluters Pay”, National Center for Public Policy Research, March 12, 2004. The US Senate refused to reinstate Superfund's ‘polluter pays’ fees. Environmentalists are complaining. Since Superfund's trust fund went bankrupt, toxic waste cleanup competes with every other government program for scarce taxpayer money. The ‘polluter pays’ fees are simply an excise tax on law-abiding companies that would be passed on to consumers. Under current law and practice, polluters already clean polluted sites whenever the federal government can identify the responsible parties. The ‘polluter pays’ fees simply force law-abiding companies to assume responsibility for the actions of others.

“A MEDIOCRE GRADE ON THE ENVIRONMENT”, Bruce Yandle,  PERC – the Center of Free Market Environmentalism, PERC Reports, March 2003, p.12.  Mid-Term Report Card, issued in January 2003, gives the Bush administration a C- for environmental and natural resources policy. Supporting the one-page report card is a 116- page study (see  that analyzes conditions in 16 areas, including air quality, ocean fisheries, federal land, climate change, chemical releases, Superfund, and endangered species.

"State of Denial" -  The Sacramento Bee newspaper published this article on  Sunday, April 27, which you can read at (Requires Flash and includes graphics and audio interviews.)  The article reports the results of a year of work by Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter Tom Knudson, who traveled thousands of miles to document California's environmental impact on the world. It is a disturbing story that offers lessons for not just California, but any part of the United States, because every state has long consumed more than it produces. Tom found that, today, California's passion for preserving nature at home while importing natural resources from afar is turning conservation into catastrophe. Tom Knudson recently wrote a series of articles on how the environmental movement became the conflict industry. Click here for a text only version.

"Common-Sense Environmentalism", Joseph Bast, Intellectual Ammunition, The Heartland Institute, September/October 2002, pp. 1-3. We now know that prosperity, private property rights, and freedom from an overly intrusive government, all values that we share, need not be sacrificed to save the environment. We can have them all, but it requires a new approach to environmentalism that relies more on science and less on hype.

"Mining Ethical Issues: The New Prohibitionists", Margaret N. Maxey, Engineering & Mining Journal, October 1997, pp. 34-40. The minerals business is under assault because of political agendas of ‘environmentalists’ rather than any of its alleged technical failures. These agendas include ideas such as ‘biocentric equality’ and ‘living as if Nature mattered’ and relief from a ‘violent, plundering humankind’. 

What Scriptures Tell Us About Environmental Stewardship, Samuel Casey Carter, The National Center for Public Policy Research, June 1998. A non-technical look at the environmental movement.

Myths and Facts About the Environment, Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, The National Center for Public Policy Research. Subjects discussed include global warming, energy issues, urban sprawl, land use, air and water quality, chemicals, biodiversity, and endangered species. Many references.

Environmental Progress Since the First Earth Day---An Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, The National Center for Public Policy Research. Brief discussions are presented about air quality, auto emissions, acid rain, aircraft fuel efficiency, wetlands, oil and gas reserves, and energy efficiency. References are given.

Environmental Progress Since the First Earth Day, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. A concise synopsis of environmental progress is given.

“Green Chemistry's Maven”, Peter Warshall, Whole Earth, Winter 1999. This is an interview with EPA's Tracy Williamson about EPA’s Green Chemistry Program to develop technology that will prevent rather than treat pollution.

“To Burn or Not To Burn”, Peter Warshall and Michael Stone, Whole Earth, Winter 1999.  Should we incinerate our garbage?

Test your Environmental Quotient with these ten simple(?) questions from the NEETF survey. (The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation) Answers and explanations are given as well as a summary of answers given to the survey.

Free-Market Environmentalists Gaining Stature - Group No Longer on Fringes as Bush Incorporates Proposals in Land Policies By Eric Pianin, Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, June 4, 2001; Page A04. Terry Anderson of PERC contends the most effective way to improve environmental quality is to rely on "positive market incentives" instead of punitive government regulations. At the heart of his theory is an unwavering belief that private ownership of natural and environmental resources is better than government ownership, and that competition between private business interests and environmentalists for control of those resources will produce trade-offs beneficial to both sides. PERC Web site:

The Truth About the Environment, Bjorn Lomborg, The Economist, August 4-10, 2001. A former environmental activist is now convinced that environmentalist views are wrong about resource shortages, a lack of food for a growing world population, the extinction of many species, forests are disappearing, fish stocks are collapsing, the earth's air and water are ever more polluted, the impacts of global warming, and humanity is defiling the earth and may end up killing itself in the process. 

Minerals for the Protection of the Environment (Environmental Minerals), W. Lorenz, SME, preprint at 1995 Annual Meeting. Mineral raw materials are mined (which sometimes upsets some of the public) but they are also essential to maintaining and cleaning our environment. 

“Responsible Gold”, Northwest Mining Association, 2005. This interactive site will respond to your questions. One link is to the National Mining Association’s site titled, U.S. Laws and Regulations Governing gold Mining ion Private and Federal Lands that outlines much of the permitting process that a new mine performs.

“UN Sounds Eco-Alarm, Supports Technology, Property Rights”, R. Bailey in Environment and Climate News by the Heartland Institute, May 2005, p. 17. UN authors delare that ‘Globally integrated approaches that focus on technology and property rights for ecosystem services generally improve human well-being in terms of health, security, social relations, and material needs.’

“FBI: Eco Extremists Are Top Domestic Terror Threat”, James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, July 2005, p.1. An FBI spokesman testified before the US Senate that extremist environmental groups are the nation’s top domestic terrorism threat. The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and Earth Liberation Front (ELF) are the most notorious. PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the Human Society of the United States have supported such groups.

“ 'Death of Environmentalism' Essay Ignites Dissent”, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, June 2005, p.13. T. Nordhaus and M. Shellenberger, two environmental activists, write that activist groups today are too extremist, too polarizing, and too lacking in credibility to achieve the broad-based support of the American people. They tacitly assume a value system in which humans and their activities are immoral and this anti-human philosophy needs to be rejected.



Federal Environmental Laws

“Superfund and Brownfield Legislation”, American Geological Institute’s Governmental Affairs Program, 7-24-03 .  A summary of recent activities and background material about Superfund (CERCLA).

Colorado: Saving the Animals, Not the Bureaucrats”, Colorado Governor Bill Owens, The Heartland Institute, 09/01/2003 . In the past 30 years, bureaucrats and vested interests purportedly responsible for administering and overseeing the ESA have lost sight of its noble intent, endangering the plight of the very species the Act was designed to protect.  In Colorado, we are taking a new approach. Our ultimate goal is to recover every Colorado species currently listed as endangered and prevent the listing of additional species.

  "Small Business Liability Relief" and "Brownfields Act". These are 2002 CERCLA Amendments issued by the EPA. A guidance document from the EPA identifies some of the threshold criteria that must be met in conducting an ‘all appropriate inquiry" to show no affiliation with a liable party and what continuing obligations are required. Another guidance document is addressed to EPA Regions regarding how to determine whether a site should be excluded from being an ‘eligible response site’. Although not directly applicable to landowners, this guidance may show how EPA will handle future site assessments.

“Abandoned Mine Land Fund Reauthorization: Selected Issues”, R. L. Bamberger, Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, March 8, 2005. Changes to the sources and uses of funds for the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) are discussed.

“Superfund and Brownfield Legislation”,
Government Affairs Program of the American Geological Institute, April 7, 2005. Recent and past legislative activity about the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability, and Compensation Act (i.e., Superfund) and the Brownfields Act of 2002 are discussed. Background information is provided.

“Wetlands Policy”,
Government Affairs Program of the American Geological Institute, January 25, 2005. Background information is provided which relates to legislative activity about wetlands.

“Federal Environmental Laws”, National Mining Association. A listing of some of the major environmental laws.

“President Signs Federal Data Quality Legislation (Act) (Public Law 106-554 Section 515",  Center for Regulatory Effectiveness. The Data Quality Act is changing the way virtually every federal agency issues information. For the first time, any person can challenge the information, data, or science used in formulating regulations rather than just challenging the regulations themselves.

Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment and Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens, EPA, 2005. The EPA issued revised principles and procedures for assessing carcinogen risks from exposures to environmental pollutants. They will apply to EPA’s current and future assessments.



Global Mining Initiative (GMI)
Global Mining Initiative:  A Guide to MMSD (Mining, Minerals, Sustainable Development), October 1, 2000. Outline of objectives of the GMI, a two-year project of the mining industry to address its role in sustainable development. The outcome of the report will be carried to the World Summit for Sustainable Development schedule for Johannesburg, 26 August to 4 September, 2002.  Response to the draft report is posted at: 

Global Mining InitiativeA Guide to MMSD (Mining, Minerals, Sustainable Development), October 1, 2000. Outline of objectives of the GMI, a two-year project of the mining industry to address its role in sustainable development. The outcome of the report will be carried to the World Summit for Sustainable Development schedule for Johannesburg, 26 August to 4 September, 2002. Response to the draft report is posted at: 


Impacts of Mining

Mountaintop Mining, current information that describes mountaintop mining and presents facts vs myths about it. 

Mining Accidents, Mineral Resources Forum, United Nations Environment Program. 

“Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin”, a book from the National Research Council, 2005, 382 pp. EPA has listed tens of square miles of the Basin as a Superfund site because of Pb, As, Cd, and Zn contamination. The first stage of cleanup will cost $359,000,000 over 30 years. Issues and concerns about EPA’s decisions are discussed.

“Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005”, US Geological Survey, January 6, 2005. The USA is increasingly dependent on imports for minerals. Imports increased 30% in 2004 over 2003 to a value of $66 billion. For 17 minerals we depend 100% on imports. The value of all mineral-based products manufactured in the USA was $418 billion in 2004. Industries that use mineral materials added $1.97 trillion to the USA’s GDP of $11.7 trillion in 2004, i.e., 17%. The USA mining and mineral processing industries continued to lose both jobs and, in many cases, production while productivity continued to improve.



Jobs in Mining

“Future Generation of Mining Engineers”, Skelly and Loy quarterly newsletter, Spring 2004. Schools that graduate mining engineers are listed and some of their programs are described. Salaries for graduates are provided. The need for more graduates is restated. Read the Article

“Recruits Hungry for Good Jobs Head Off to Coal Mines”, USA Today newspaper, Money Section, February 15, 2006. Demand for miners is high. Pay is good compared to other occupations. Job safety is excellent. Read the Article

Mining Engineering Graduates Need to Triple Over Next 10 Years, Experts Note”, NMA Mining Week, National Mining Association, September 2, 2005, p.4. Just to replace retiring engineers will require three times as many new graduates as are now being produced. New B.S. graduates earn $50-$60,000/year. There is a growing labor shortage in all parts of the minerals business.

The graying and retiring of the mining industry”, Dorothy Kosich, March 8, 2005. Few young persons are entering the minerals business and with the ‘greying’ of the industry this means that opportunities for advancement are excellent. Hindrances are a biased opinion of the business, most jobs are outside metropolitan areas, and the cyclical nature of the business.

Mining Jobs Available, No Workers”, Mining Engineering, SME, February 2005, p. 4. The mining industry is having a hard time filling jobs. The industry is booming. Annual wages including benefits reach $60,000/year for skilled tradesmen and operators.




“Federal Court Opens Roads in National Forests”, James M. Taylor, The Heartland Institute, 09/01/2003 .  A federal judge has struck down a government-imposed ban on building new roads in a third of America ’s national forests.

“Access To Land Policy”, AusIMM Public Policy Compendium.  This is AusIMM’s draft land policy proposed for Australia .

  “Earth Day 2003 Fact Sheet: Myths and Facts About the Environment”, National Center for Public Policy Research. April 21, 2003. Many myths and the facts to refute them are presented.  

"The Campaign Against Urban Sprawl: Declaring War on the American Dream" John Carlisle, National Center for Public Policy Research, April 1999. Only 5% of the USA has been developed. The amount of land dedicated to parks and conservation uses has greatly exceeded the amount of land that has been urbanized. Forest lands have been increasing. In 38 of the 50 States, more than 90% of the land is rural.

  "Land Trusts Attempt Stealth Tax Cut", American Land Rights Association, 2/17/03. Senate bill S.256 called ‘The CARE Act of 2003’ contains sections 106 and 107 that would provide a 25% tax cut on capital gains of land sales but only if the land is sold to an environmental group or to a government agency. This puts private buyers at a disadvantage.

Ten Second Response, June 19, 2002. The U. S. Care Act of 2002 encourages the sale of private property to governmental agencies or environmental organizations by offering the private owner a 25% cut in capital gains taxes that must be paid on the proceeds of the sale. Reasons for opposing the Act are given. See TSR61902 at

Release of 15-Year Old Wilderness Study Areas, The National Center for Public Policy Research, May 2, 2002. H.R. 4589 was introduced to Congress to prevent the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management from continuing to close off millions of acres of public land by refusing to either conduct the necessary studies or report to Congress on whether they recommend such lands be made into permanent Wilderness Areas.

Smart-growth Group Pushes Tough New Land-use Controls, James M. Taylor, Environment and Climate News, May 2002. The authority and rights of local governments and individual citizens may be restricted by tough new land-use controls spelled out by the American Planning Association in its guidebook Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook.

Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

Buying Back Eden, Peter Warshall, Whole Earth, Spring, 1998.  Many approaches for keeping land ‘natural’ are described.

Good-Guy Real Estate, Jean Hocker, Land Trust Alliance president, Whole Earth, Fall 1998.  A discussion of land trusts as conservation-based commons.

The Forest Service Chief's Land and Resource Management Plan (LRMP) Revision Schedule is based on the premise that those National Forest System units facing ecological concerns are considered high priorities.

Green Places and Open Spaces, M. Brown and H. Fretwell, booklet from PERC (Political Economy Research Center), State Based Environmentalism Series, 2001. An approach that relies on local control and accountability can provide the incentives necessary to meet the numerous demands made on public lands, including long-term environmental protection. 

Public Lands: The Price We Pay, Holly Fretwell, PERC (Political Economy Research Center), August 1998. States consistently earn money from their public lands while the federal government loses money. 

BLM Draft Manual and Handbook Guidance for Preparation of Land Use Plans, comments by Northwest Mining Association, August 7, 2000. 

“Incentives and Conservation: The Next Generation of Environmentalists”, PERC (Property & Environment Research Center, 2004. This book is about wetland regulations, the growth of land trusts, the history of eco-industrial parks, the role of property rights, entrepreneurship, and the importance of time-and-place specifics of environmental protection. 

“Bush Gives States More Say Over Road-Building on Federal Lands", James Hoare, Environment & Climate News, September 2004, p.1. It was announced on July 12, 2004 that national forests will no longer be off-limits to new road construction. This rescinds one of President Clinton’s last acts which was to put 60 million acres off-limits for logging and the building of new roads. 


Legal Approaches to Environmentalism
The Common Law: How It Protects the Environment, Meiners and Yandle, Issue Number PS-13 of PERC Policy Series, May 1998. Many more environmental laws are not needed. 

The Greening of Foreign Policy, J. Bishop Grewell, PERC Reports, March 2001, p. 7. A dangerous paradigm shift has occurred by adding an environmental component to the conduct of international affairs. For example, 2% of the Department of Defense budget is for environmental programs. 



Doctors For Disaster Preparedness Newsletter, March 2004. The EPA recommended limit for mercury ingestion is 0.1 mcg/kg/day. White tuna or albacore have the highest levels of mercury. Fish such as trout that are small enough to fit on your plate will not have accumulated enough mercury to be a problem.

U.S. Plants Emit Only 1% of Global Mercury”, Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives,  February 19, 2004 .  Only 1% of total world mercury emissions comes from U.S. utilities. China ’s coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of the world’s total. American ingenuity is leading the way toward reducing overall mercury emissions. Since 1995, U.S. emissions have dropped by a whopping 42%.

“Mercury: Grain of Truth, Gram of Nonsense”,  Heartland Institute, 3/1/2004 .  The quote that ‘one gram of mercury will contaminate a 20-acre lake’ is a hoax.  Every time this statement is quoted, even by the EPA, it has been attributed only to press releases or generic public information documents.  There are no technical calculations to back it up.  Only methylmercury, about 5% of the total mercury in our environment, can contaminate waters of a lake and there is no evidence that eating ocean fish causes brain damage at any age.

"Mercury Emissions and Fuel Switching: What’s in Your Coal?", J. Hile, Coal Age, October 2002, pp. 22-25. Mercury emission regulations on utilities is coming. The mercury and chlorine content of coals from various supply regions is given.

E&MJ, May 2001, p. ww42. The EPA intends to regulate mercury. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) is conducting many studies about mercury to obtain data about low-level toxicity, Hg in the food chain, sources of Hg, and removal technologies. For more information, contact  or .

“Mercury in Perspective: Fact and Fiction About the Debate Over Mercury”, R. W. Pombo (Chrm House Resources Committee) and J. Gibbons (Chrm Mineral Resources Subcommittee), 2/16/05. The paper is a comprehensive synopsis of the federal agency, private and recently peer-reviewed research used in the debate over regulating mercury. The cumulative body of science supports the Bush Administration's proposed cap and trade program, the first federal program to ever regulate mercury from power plants. Cap and trade programs have already proven effective with other priority pollutants. 

“A Review of DOE/NETL’s Mercury Control Technology R&D Program for Coal-Fired Power Plants”,
T.J. Feeley, J. Murphy, J. Hoffmann, S. A. Renniger, US Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and SAI Corp., April 2003. This paper is part of the basis for the nation’s first set of regulations to control mercury emissions from power plants. The regulations impose nationwide caps to reduce emissions 70% by 2018 while giving individual power plants the flexibility to adopt new technology as it becomes available and determine the best way to meet the new limits.

“Mercury Policy”,
Government Affairs Program of American Geological Institute, March 21, 2005. This updated site gives recent and past governmental legislative activity along with the background to understand it.

“2004 Annual Progress Report on the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy”, EPA. Toxic chemicals in the Great Lakes area (mercury, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dioxins/furans, and PCBs) have been significantly reduced. Of the 17 reduction goals set in 1997, ten have been met, three will be met by 2006, and the remaining four will be well advanced by 2006. Mercury use in the USA, for example, has been reduced more than 50% based on a 1990 baseline.

“Alaska Disputes EPA Mercury Guidelines”, James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, June 2005, p.1. Alaska tells its citizens to eat 10 to 60 ounces of fish per week instead of limiting it to 12 oz/wk as the EPA and FDA recommend.

“Significant Mercury Emissions Reductions Highlight Mining Industry TRI Data”, National Mining Association, May 11, 2005. The gold mines in Nevada cut mercury emissions by 33% to 2.2 tons in 2003.

“Hg & the Basics”, Edison Electric Institute, 2004. This user-friendly site is designed to provide a straightforward approach to addressing key mercury issues: The Basics, Mercury and Fish, Mercury and Your Health, Mercury and Power Plants, Mercury Regulation, Mercury and Technology, and more. Serving as a portal to mercury info on the Web, the site also features charts and graphs, fact sheets, quotes from media and the EPA, and links to third-party resources.

“New Jersey Ignores Science on Mercury”, James Taylor, Environment & Climate News, April 2005, p. 1. A report titled ‘Mercury in Perspective: Fact and Fiction about the Debate Over Mercury’ was released February 16 by the Resources Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives.  It shows that the most current peer-reviewed science does not support conclusions that the U.S. population is at risk from the trace amounts of mercury found in fish.  Only 2% of environmental mercury comes from U. S. man-made emissions … 61% from natural sources.

Mercury in Perspective”. The House Resources Committee, 2005. A new report on mercury emissions includes a wealth of factual information that puts the issue in perspective. Dangers of toxic mercury pollution in the environment have been overstated. For example, mercury levels in fish have remained constant or declined slightly since the 1970s. The current fish scare is unwarranted.

“EPA Releases Notice of Data Availability for Clean Air Mercury Rule”, National Mining Association, December 2, 2004. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) this week released a “Notice of Data Availability” (NODA) for its proposed Clean Air Mercury Rule. The NODA summarizes the more than 680,000 public comments received during the comment period and solicits further comment on new data and information to help EPA evaluate which regulatory approach will best reduce mercury emissions from power plants.

“How safe are we from the fish we eat?”, Center for Science & Public Policy, September 2004. There is no evidence supporting claims that eating ocean fish exposes pregnant women and infants to health risks. There is greater health risk in avoiding fish than in consuming it. EPA’s mercury reference dose should be re-evaluated because it is based on the flawed Faroe Islands children study. Mercury in oceans would remain constant even if the U.S. could eliminate all mercury emissions. 

“Health Threat of Mercury Overblown, Scientists Say”, James M. Taylor, Environment News, May 1, 2004, published by The Heartland Institute. The EPA and the FDA issued a joint advisory that emphasized the small hypothetical risk from increased exposure to mercury is offset by the benefits of eating fish. 



Mining Law of 1872

 "The Mining Law of 1872: Digging a Little Deeper", David Gerard Ph.D., PERC, 12/01/1997. The Mining Law of 1872 governs access to minerals on public lands. The law is often said by environmentalists to amount to a "taxpayer give-away" of valuable mineral rights that threatens the environment by failing to regulate mining companies.

  "Two Cheers for the 1872 Mining Law: Parts I & II & III", Richard Gordon and Peter VanDoren, Cato Institute, 04/01/1998. Some say the law gives away land at too cheap a price and often for non-mining uses. Estimates of the ‘giveaway’ are overstated. Future mining claims should be allocated at auction without royalties --- or --- allow anyone to bid against mining companies under the current mining law.

The Mining Law of 1872: A Legal and Historical Analysis, T. S. Ary, June 1989, 162pp. This book has ISBN#0937299146. Members of Congress, environmentalists, and the mining industry debate the law of 1872. At issue are legal principles, U.S. security, and individual rights granted American citizens 119 years ago.

“Mining Law Issues”, Northwest Mining Association website, Issues, commentary from 2001 through December 2, 2005.

‘U. S. House Passes Mining Law Reform’, editorial in Engineering and Mining Journal, December 2005, p.4. The House changes to the law are now before the Senate. The changes include 1) patent fees for claims would be raised from $5 to $1,000 or fair market value (whichever is higher), 2) the 11-year moratorium on mining patents will be lifted, and 3) operators can sell the land after mining and leave in place some surface facilities that would be of value to the next owner.

“Mining on Federal Lands”, M. Humphries, Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, February 28, 2005. Three bills pertaining to hardrock mining were introduced in the 108th Congress and are discussed herein, but there was no House or Senate action: the Elimination of Double Subsidies for the Hardrock Mining Industry Act of 2003 (S. 44), the Abandoned Hardrock Mines Reclamation Act of 2003 (H.R. 504), and the Mineral Exploration and Development Act of 2003 (H.R. 2141). H.R. 504 would have established a Reclamation Fund financed by reclamation fees imposed on hardrock mineral producers. H.R. 2141 would have imposed an 8% net smelter royalty, allowed for an unsuitability review by the Secretary of the Interior or Agriculture, and established a reclamation bond or financial guarantee and a reclamation fund. Also in both sessions of the 108th Congress, the Interior and Related Agencies appropriations bills included a provision to retain a patent moratorium that has been imposed annually since 1995.

“The Mining Law Millsite Debate”,
M. Humphries, Congressional Research Service of The Library of Congress, September 14, 1999, 7pp. This report provides background and analysis on the debate over whether the miUsite language (30 USC 42) in the Mining Law of 1872 allows only one five-acre millsite per mining claim. In practice, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has allowed for as many millsites as can be justified for developing the orebody.

“Mining Policy”,
Government Affairs Program of the American Geological Institute, June 13, 2005. Recent and past legislative actions are described. Background information is provided on the Mining Law of 1872.

“Two Cheers for the 1872 Mining Law”,
R. L. Gordon and P. Van Doren, Policy Analysis, CATO Institute, April 4, 1998. The benefits and problems of the current law are discussed.

“Wholesale Changes Are Not Needed”, Andrew W. Berg, Mining Engineering, SME, May 2005, pp. 8-9. A few changes to the mining law are needed by there is no justification for a royalty.

Norton Urges Enactment of Mining Law Reform, Mining Week, National Mining Association, November 2, 2001. Recommendations: 1) permanent authorization of a mining claim holding fee, 2) revision of the patent system, 3) authorization of a production payment system, 4) authorization of administrative penalties, 5) an expanded role for the States in managing the mining program.

Update on Mining Law and Regulatory Reform, American Geological Institute’s Government Affairs Program, 10/25/01. Both recent actions and background information are presented.

The Mining of the West --- The Rest of the Story, Laura Skaer, Northwest Mining Association, 6/26/01. This is a response to McClure and Schneider's self-styled expose entitled "The Mining of the West," which ran in the Seattle Post Intelligencer the week of June 11. It gives needed balance and truth to the expose story.

John Sturgul presents an articulate argument in support of rational U.S. Mining Law amendments and the very real plight of the domestic mining industry. 

Hardrock Mining, the 1872 Law, and the U.S. Economy, Bernard A. Gelb, Economics Division of Congressional Research Service, July 1, 1994. An analysis of changes to the mining law including hypothetical royalty calculations.

Mining Law of 1872 Reform Update, Governmental Affairs Program of the American Geological Institute, 11-27-00. History of the mining law plus recent enacted and proposed changes.

Mining Law of 1872, Jeanine Ferianacek of Holland & Hart LLP, 1999. A summary of the law including up-to-date amendments. Gives US Code references.

The Mining Law of 1872: A Legal and Historical Analysis, T. S. Ary, June 1989, 162pp. This book has ISBN#0937299146. Members of Congress, environmentalists, and the mining industry debate the law of 1872. At issue are legal principles, U.S. security, and individual rights granted American citizens 119 years ago.




FY2004 Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations”, American Geological Institute’s Government Affairs Program, 8-11-03 .  Geoscience-related agencies covered by the Interior and Related Agencies appropriations include the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Energy oil and gas research programs, Bureau of Land Management, Minerals Management Service, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution, and U.S. Forest Service.

  Policy Communications, Inc. This organization is an advocacy and lobbying group that specializes in building broad-based coalitions that get results, such as "Save The Rockies Alliance". It also helps companies develop policies and resolve conflicts, helps with news media advocacy, and builds grassroots support campaigns.

  "Project Investment Survey 2003", Engineering & Mining Journal, January 2003, pp. 28-34. A summary of worldwide investment in mineral projects. Copper = 32% of 2002 investment dollars, gold= 21%. Only 7% of investment dollars were in USA.

  "ACT Online", National Mining Association. This site provides individuals, who are not members of NMA, the opportunity to send comments to their federal senators and representatives about issues that are important to the minerals business. The issues are discussed. Go to the following web site and click on the icon for ACT Online.

Mine Health and Safety Review for 2000, Larry Grayson, Mining Engineering, March 2001, p.62. Mines are getting safer every year. 

“USA to Mint 24-Karat Gold Bullion Coin”, Northwest Mining Association Bulletin, April/May 2005, p.3.    The USA has no 24-karat (99.99%) gold bullion coin.  The American Eagle series are 22-karat (91.6%).  60% of worldwide bullion sales are 24-karat coins.  Planning and development of the coins will start in 2005.

Mining Executives Rate the Investment Climate of Jurisdictions Around the World”, Fred McMahon, The Fraser Institute, 3/7/2005. Companies responsible for a combined total of US$798 million in international exploration (expected in 2005) rate the policy attractiveness and mineral potential of mining jurisdictions in North American and internationally.

Mining in the USA
“Summary of Hearings on Mining”, American Geological Institute’s Governmental Affairs Program, 7-23-03 .  The House Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources met on July 17th to consider the role of strategic and critical minerals in maintaining national economic security. Witnesses representing the mining industry argued that US mineral resources have not been depleted and could be mined in an environmentally responsible and economically profitable manner if regulations and the permitting process were streamlined and enforced. Their testimonies were unchallenged and the need for a national mineral policy was stressed throughout the hearing.  Witnesses were: Charles G. Groat, Director of U.S. Geological Survey; Hugh Hanes, Brush Wellman, Inc.; Robert J. Noel, Metals Availability Initiative Consortium; Ann Carpenter, Women's Mining Coalition; Douglas B. Silver, President of Balfour Holdings, Inc.



Nuclear Power, Nuclear Waste, Radiation, and Uranium

 “Nuclear Power: Clean, Safe and Needing a Level Playing Field”, Gerald E. Marsh and George S. Stanford, National Center for Public Policy Research, August 2003.  Nuclear power is economical. All it needs is a level playing field.  If Congress would assure the nuclear industry that regulations governing the industry would remain reasonably stable, the plants would be built.  

“High-level Nuclear Waste Legislation”, American Geological Institute’s Governmental Affairs Program, 8-18-03 .  After 20 years and $6 billion characterizing the site, the Yucca Mountain project has now begun transitioning from site characterization to licensing and construction, a phase likely to be fraught with more legal roadblocks.

  "Terrorism and Nuclear Power: What are the Risks?", Gerald E. Marsh and George S. Stanford, National Center for Public Policy Research, November 2001. Terrorists will not see nuclear power plants as attractive targets because attacking them will not create widespread havoc. They could get a lot of public attention but they would be unlikely to cause any civilian casualties. Nevertheless, a significant portion of what vulnerability there is could be removed by transferring spent fuel to underground storage at Yucca Mountain.

  "Integral Fast Reactors: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power", George S. Stanford, Ph.D., National Center for Public Policy Research, December 2001. Questions and answers about types of nuclear reactors, breeders, plutonium, reactor safety, conservation advantages, proliferation, and safeguards.

  Nuclear energy is here to stay. On July 23, 2002, President Bush signed the resolution officially opening Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada as a safe repository in which to store our nation's nuclear waste. Our nation has nearly one hundred million gallons of high-level nuclear waste and over 40,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. It presently is scattered in 131 aging temporary surface storage sites located in 39 states. Soon it will be secured in a single, deeply underground secure site in a geographically stable area further from any metropolitan area than any of the temporary storage sites. The Yucca Mountain site has been studied for 24 years -- more than twice the time it took to plan and complete the moon landing -- at a $4 billion cost. It has been twelve years since the National Academy of Sciences called the Yucca option the "best option" for disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The average American home operates five hours per day on nuclear-generated energy. Forty percent of our nation's warships operate on nuclear power. Twenty percent of our nation's electricity comes from nuclear power.

  "Europeans Debate Nuclear Power", S. Fred Singer for The Heartland Institute, 02/01/2003. The European Union’s July 2002 statement on Energy and Sustainable Development promised the EU would give technical assistance on safety to developing countries, such as China and India, that have nuclear power. The statement directly contradicts provisions of the EU’s Energy Initiative for assisting developing countries, which excludes nuclear.

  "Increasingly Strong Public Support for Nuclear Energy in Two New Surveys", A. S. Bisconti, Nuclear Energy Institute, December 2002. Two national surveys --- one of the general public and one of college graduates registered to vote --- find increasingly strong support for nuclear energy.

  Ten Second Response, June 25, 2002. Keeping the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository open must be voted on by the Senate by July 25, 2002 or it may be killed forever and, with it, the future of nuclear energy in the United States. See TSR62502 at

Integral Fast Reactors: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power, George S. Stanford, National Policy Analysis #378, December 2001. Fuel rods should be used in integral fast reactors as discussed in this paper. It would prevent throwing away much useful fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada.

Editorial, The Denver Post, May 21, 2001. The Post encourages a discussion about nuclear power.

Low-dose Radiation Fears Unfounded, T. D. Luckey, Environment & Climate News, March 2001. Low-dose irradiation activates the immune system and has many health benefits. 

Nuclear Power, Deep Winze, Engineering and Mining Journal, February 2001, p. ww40. History, current status, and politics of nuclear power with some strong opinions thrown in. 

“Burning Bright: Nuclear Energy’s Future”, L. Foulke and H. S. Burnett, Brief Analysis by National Center for Policy Analysis, March 28, 2005. Officials from 74 countries met in Paris at the behest of the United Nations’ International Atomic Energy Agency and issued a declaration that nuclear power could ‘make a major contribution to meeting energy needs and sustaining the world’s development’.

“Nuclear Energy Policy”, Mark Holt, Congressional Research Service Reports of the National Library for the Environment, July 18, 2005. Several provisions of the recent energy legislation affecting nuclear power are identified. Federal budgets for nuclear energy are increased slightly. The opening of Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada has been postponed two years to 2012.

“Blue-Ribbon Government Panel Lauds Nuclear Energy”, Jay Lehr, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, June 2005, p.6. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Task Force found all obstacles to the resumption of new growth in nuclear power generation to be readily surmountable through a coordinated public and private effort. Information if given about costs, safety, health, economic benefits, and pollution.

"Chinese Aim to Capitalize on Safe, Revolutionary Nuclear Technology”, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, November 2004, p. 14. China needs much more energy. It has most of the heavily polluted cities in the world. It is responding with nuclear power.

“Making the Case for Nuclear Power”,
Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, February 2005, pp. 15-16. An excellent book about nuclear energy has been written by Senator Pete Domenici of New Mexico. The title is “A Brighter Tomorrow: Fulfilling the Promise of Nuclear Energy”. It sets forth the remarkably good record of nuclear power over the past 50 years and it debunks many nuclear myths. It recommends more nuclear energy in the future.



Permitting Process

"Supreme Court to Review Red Dog Mine Air-quality Permit Dispute", Washington Survey page of Mining Engineering, SME, April 2003, p.5. This case could affect the entire USA minerals business. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) issued an air quality permit for the Red Dog Mine even though the EPA ordered them not to. The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the EPA. The dispute is a ‘State vs Federal’ one.

“How Do We Get Approval To Quarry?”, Mark Williams, Skelly and Loy quarterly newsletter, Fall 2004. This is a plaintive cry for understanding by the public officials along with suggestions for paving the way to obtain a permit. Read the Article.

“Responsible Gold”, Northwest Mining Association, 2005. This interactive site will respond to your questions. One link is to the National Mining Association’s site titled, U.S. Laws and Regulations Governing gold Mining ion Private and Federal Lands that outlines much of the permitting process that a new mine performs.

“Hardrock Mining: State Regulation”, A. Flynn, Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, March 14, 2005. This report is a survey of state laws governing certain aspects of hardrock mining. It is not a comprehensive description of each state’s regulatory program, but instead focuses on (1) state imposed royalty rates and rental charges for hardrock minerals on state lands and (2) reclamation and bonding requirements for hardrock mining activities applicable to all mining operations.

“Bush plan streamlines strip mine permits”, Ken Ward Jr., WV Gazette-Mail, February 11, 2005. The Bush administration on Thursday announced a plan to allow states to streamline the way coal operators obtain new strip mine permits.



Property Rights

 Court Defends Property Rights and Narrows the Scope of ESA, Tom J. King, Environment & Climate News, May 2002. The 9th Circuit Court ruled that the BLM and the USFS could not prohibit cattle grazing on public lands designated as ‘critical habitat’ for endangered species when there is no sign any endangered species are currently living on the federal land. The issuance of ‘take statements’ by the agencies has been restricted.

  How the Feds and Eco-Elitists Take Private Land for Fun and Profit: All in the Name of Environmental Protection..., Tom DeWeese, American Policy Center, 2001. It is tragic to know that in some parts of the United States, Americans, too, are learning of the injustice that can result from government agents having far too much power over those subjected to their whims.

The Greens' Property Rights, editorial, Investor's Business Daily, August 13, 2001, p.A22. Environmentalists were upset when Steven Spielberg's Dreamworks studio agreed to take part in developing a 1,087 acre tract of land in Los Angeles County that contained some wetlands and the Belding's savannah sparrow. Unable to stop the development, they formed Playa Vista LLC and offered to buy 10% of the land. Negotiations are progressing. In other words, the foundation of a free market -- property rights -- will help preserve the environment. What a concept! 

Getting Around the 'Takings' Problem?, Gregg Easterbrook, with response by PERC. PERC Reports, June 1998. For every new acre of developed land, one acre of land should be dedicated to conservation. 

“Water trades work elsewhere: Why not in the Basin?”, Jane Shaw, Property & Environment Research Center (PERC), June 4, 2004. Does the protection of endangered fish trump ranchers’ contracts for irrigation water? The U. S. Supreme Court is considering the issue based on a conflict in California.


Reclamation (Rebeautification)
"OSM’s Jarrett Lists Accomplishments in Coal Mine Reclamation", Mining Engineering, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Washington Survey column, December 2002, p. 5. Since 1977 OSM has collected $6B from the coal industry for the Abandoned Mine Land Program. 180,000 acres have been reclaimed, 20,000 mine shafts have been filled and sealed, and 100,000 acres of coal refuse has been reclaimed or eliminated.

McLaughlin Mine Wins Habitat Award, Engineering & Mining Journal, April 2000, p.16BB. McLaughlin Mine won the Wildlife Habitat Council's Corporate Habitat of the Year award from among 65 entries nationwide.

"Facts on Reclamation”, National Mining Association. General information about what reclamation is and the amount of land restored since 1978 . References are given to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and other federal laws affecting mining operations.

The USFS has published a Draft Reclamation Bonding Guide. The guide is posted on line at




“Steel Recycling Hits 25-year High in the USA”, Steel Recycling Institute, 4/19/05.  The recycling rate for the world’s and the USA’s steel was 70.7% in 2004.  The amount recycled in the USA in 2004 was 76 million tons.  More ‘old’ steel than ever before was recycled.  This is helping to keep America beautiful.

“Steel Recycling Hits 25-year High in the USA”, Steel Recycling Institute, 4/19/05.  The recycling rate for the world’s and the USA’s steel was 70.7% in 2004.  The amount recycled in the USA in 2004 was 76 million tons.  More ‘old’ steel than ever before was recycled.  This is helping to keep America beautiful.



  "White House Wants to Update the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA)", Mining Engineering, October 2002, p.5. The Council on Environmental Quality is reviewing the old law and expects to have a report out in early 2003. It is said that the 1970 law is bogged down with regulations that stall federal action for years.

The Rising Cost of Regulations Since the First Earth Day, The National Center for Public Policy Research. 2002. A few statistics about the cost of regulation, with references.

Protecting Wetlands, Destroying Freedom, Joseph L. Bast, Environment & Climate News, May 2002. A year ago, the U.S. Supreme Court struck a blow for property rights. State governments should not be allowed to undo this small victory. Activists are organizing to back state legislation ‘to protect wetlands’ in the wake of a U. S. Supreme Court ruling that limits the federal government’s authority over wetlands.

The Rising Cost of Regulations Since the First Earth Day, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.

Judge Invalidates Key Provisions of Historic Preservation Rule, Mining Week, National Mining Association, September 21, 2001, p.3. The power of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) was curtailed. They will not be able to continue their review process if no historic properties are present or if a federal agency rules that there are no adverse impacts but a consultant disagrees.

The TMDL Process: A Primer, Angela B. Fowler, URS Corp., Mining Engineering, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, Inc., September 2001, p.61-2. Click here to see the article (pdf format, 264K).

Is There Hope for Nevada Mining After 3809?, Russ Fields, Mining Voice, Jan/Feb 2001, p. 40, National Mining Association. The 3809 regulations include a "substantial irreparable harm" provision that effectively gives BLM a new 'mine veto' power. 

Shouldering the Burden, Mark E. Battersby, Mining Voice, Jan/Feb 2001, p. 28, a publication of the National Mining Association. Rural economies are hart hit by the plethora of regulations governing natural resource industries. Interesting statistics. 

Regulatory Jihad on Mining Closes -- What's Next?, Thomas H. Altmeyer, Mining Voice, National Mining Association, Jan/Feb 2001, p. 12. The cost of complying with regulations in the USA is about $750 billion per year.

“Responsible Gold”, Northwest Mining Association, 2005. This interactive site will respond to your questions. One link is to the National Mining Association’s site titled, U.S. Laws and Regulations Governing gold Mining ion Private and Federal Lands that outlines much of the permitting process that a new mine performs.

Regulations - BLM 43CFR3809

“3809 Issues”, Northwest Mining Association website, Issues. Commentary about the 3809 regulations along with the regulations themselves from the year 2001 through April 2004.

“Information About and Action Needed on BLM 43CFR3809 Regulations”, position paper by Mining and Metallurgical Society of America. Distortions about the mining business are discussed and recommendations are made about the ‘3809 rule’. 

“Revisions for Section 3809”, position paper by the National Mining Association. The paper provides background information, describes the issue, and defines the impact of mining on the USA’s way of life. 

“MPC Analysis: The New 3809 Regulations”, A. Septoff and C. Carlson, Mineral Policy Center, February 2001. The new regulations are needed to prevent unnecessary or undue degradation of the public lands. 

“Hardrock Mining On Federal Lands”. This is the executive summary of the National Research Council’s report to Congress that assesses the adequacy of the regulatory framework for hardrock mining on federal lands. There is discussion about hardrock mining and the environment and about the existing regulatory framework. Conclusions and recommendations are made.

Regulations - RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)

“Regulations and Standards”, EPA. Here is the law, regulations, history, and training/orientation modules. Easy to use guides.

“RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act”, Safety Emporium. This website provides MSDS information on chemicals, summaries and complete versions of the RCRA law, and free software for dealing with RCRA.



Research & Development
New Forces at Work: Industry Views Critical Technologies, Steven W. Popper, et al, Rand Science and Technology Policy Institute, report number MR-1008-OSTP, 1998. Survey responses given by industry participants are provided to the question, ‘What technologies are critical to your firm or industry?’

What Value R&D? - A Chief Executive's Perspective, Nick Stump, March 2001. This speech says why R&D is necessary at all times. 

Rand Report: Perspective on the Study, D. J. Peterson, et al, Mining & Engineering Journal, October 2001, pp. ww34-ww42. Rand provides perspectives and implications for public and private sector mining organizations about mining related R&D in the future.


Roadless Areas
Public Comment: Ten Questions to Help Guide the Decision Process, USDA Forest Service. Public comment on the roadless issue is due by September 10, 2001. The ten questions are intended to help you probe this issue of roadless areas and can be found at The proposed legislation is given at




"Mine Deaths Drop to New Low", Engineering & Mining Journal, January 2003, p. 13. MSHA has shown for the second straight year that fatal injuries at mines declined to historic lows. Only 67 miners died in 2002, the lowest figure on record.

News release in The Drift of Things section of Mining Engineering, December 2002, p. 4. AngloGold in South Africa distributes anti-AIDS drugs to its HIV-positive workers (about 25% of workforce). The cost is $4 to $6 per ounce of gold produced; failing to manage the problem would cost $9/oz.

“Potential Hazards Of Noise And Respirable Silica Dust Exposure”, Skelly and Loy quarterly newsletter, Spring 2005. Regulations for noise are provided and the dangers of silica dust are discussed.
Read the Article.

“Mining Noise: Emission, Analysis, Mitigation”, Skelly and Loy quarterly newsletter, Winter 2003. Noise sources, their analysis and prediction, and methods of mitigating noise problems are all described. Read the Article

“Keeping Miners Alive”, Gargi Chakrabarty, Rocky Mountain News story, February 4, 2006. The devices and procedures for keeping miners safe are described. The excellent mining safety record in the USA, and in Colorado particularly, is discussed. The record has been consistently getting better. Read the Article.

‘CMA Announces Safety Award Winners’, Colorado Mining Association, January 26, 2006. Colorado’s mining industry has had one of the safest years on record. Since 1995, coal operators have reduced the injury rate by 58% while production has increased by 65%. Overall, the mining industry is safer than construction, manufacturing, and the retail and wholesale trades.

“Improving Continuous Miner Safety”, Coal News, June 2005, p. 18. MSHA reported that remote ratio controlled continuous mining machines without an onboard operator are now the norm in underground coal mining. Procedures for using them to maximize safety are discussed.

“Mining Fatalities Decline to New Record Low”, U. S. Department of Labor (MSHA), news release on January 5, 2005. Mining fatalities in the United States fell to a new low.



Sustainable Development

  "International attempt to control U.S. mining fails", Tom Randall of The Heartland Institute, 02/01/2000. An attempt to place U.S. mining under international control, made by the World Heritage Committee (WHC) in Marrakesh, Morocco in December 1999, was soundly rejected by the U.S. State Department.

  "Sustainable Silliness", Tom Randall of The Heartland Institute, 05/01/2000. On one side of the issue stand the anti-progress supporters. They preach fear that we will overpopulate the planet, use up all our precious resources, and run out of food, drinkable water, and breathable air, all while killing off most species of plants and animals. They have little confidence in the common sense and inventiveness of the human heart and mind and believe "someone" must control all human activity through a massive command-and-control central government. Pitted against them are those who express an eternal optimism and confidence in the creativity and problem-solving of the human species. They confound and disgust the anti-progress folks, and incite their rage just as if you had attacked their religion (which in many cases may be true).

  "What Economists Can Teach Environmentalists", L. W. Pratt, Intellectual Ammunition, The Heartland Institute, Winter 2003, p.18. Sustainable development may sound sensible to the average citizen, but to an economist it looks like a solution in search of a problem. The solution seems to be central planning. The only way economic development can be sustained is to preserve freedom of individual thought and action. Those who are saying they are concerned with ‘sustainable development’ would seem to be headed in the wrong direction.

  "Investment Attractiveness Index: Chile, Quebec, and Australia Rate Highest", Ted Worthington, Engineering & Mining Journal, February 2003, pp. 26-27. A survey by the Fraser Institute took into account a ‘mineral potential index’ and a ‘policy potential index’ to rank the world’s best places for exploration.

  "Issues faced by the world mining industry", Allan Robinson, The Globe and Mail, May 13, 2002. Twelve issues that the minerals business must face are listed.

"Sustainability Information Resources", Rob Dies, Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of BC, May 13, 2002. A list of useful information sources on mining and sustainability.

"Defining Sustainability". A definition given in 1987 is provided with elaboration by seven guidelines put forward by the Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of BC in 1993.

Global Environment Outlook 3, 2002, United Nations Environment Program. This gives the UN’s overview of the state of the global environment. A reading suggests that the UN wants narratives before it wants numbers to back up the narrative. It examines the 30-year consequences of four scenarios: markets first, policy first, security first, and sustainability first.

New release from MMSD (Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development; part of the Global Mining Initiative), London, May 1, 2002. Breaking New Ground is the final report by MMSD that addresses the question, ‘What can minerals do about sustainable development?’. The goal was to unearth the most controversial problems of mineral development throughout the world. Sir Robert Wilson, chairman of Rio Tinto plc, said, ‘From the industry perspective, taking part in this project was a risky business. It was nevertheless an essential step, not least for business reasons. The industry realized it is difficult to do well as a business when you belong to an industry that has a bad reputation. If we allowed the widespread negative attitudes to our activities to go on, we would eventually have difficulty accessing resources in the ground and markets for our products.’

Breaking New Ground: Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development, MMSD (Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development; part of the Global Mining Initiative). This final report is now available for download at The draft report was dated March 4, 2002, and was open for comment until April 17, 2002. A list of sponsors for this report is given at

“The Renewal, Growth, Birth, and Death of Ecological Communities”, C. S. Holling, Whole Earth, Summer 1998.  A promising new model questions old ideologies, brittle beliefs, and ecological ideals.  Is it a guide to more mindful actions and sustainable development?

Global Mining Initiative status report, Bulletin No. 17, 24 Oct 2001.

Rio Tinto Borax Commits to Sustainable Development, Mining Engineering, Society of Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, Inc., September 2001, pp.33-35. A good explanation of what sustainable development means.

“Sustainable Development”, Coal News, November 2005, p.16. This article summarizes a talk given by Dirk vanZyl. It defines and gives vanZyl’s interpretation of sustainable development.

“Economists and Environmentalists”, Research Report from American Institute for Economic Research, December 9, 2002. Sustainability cannot be planned. If it is, it leads to centralized planning which is a failed economic system. The only way economic development can be sustained is to preserve freedom of individual thought and action.

News release in The Drift of Things section of Mining Engineering, December 2002, p. 4. AngloGold in South Africa distributes anti-AIDS drugs to its HIV-positive workers (about 25% of workforce).
The cost is $4 to $6 per ounce of gold produced; failing to manage the problem would cost $9/oz.

“Why I Hate Sermons”, Douglas B. Silver, Mining Engineering, February 2004, p. 7, SME. This is an interesting response to the ‘sustainable development’ fever. The mining business has been sustainable for millennia and that implies that our practices have been acceptable to the majority.

  "Experts React to Sustainable Washington Report", Environment & Climate News, May 2003. The Sustainable Washington Advisory Panel developed several suggestions "for using human, environmental, and economic resources more wisely, including the use of energy-efficient products, recycled materials, and conservation programs." The Panel’s recommendations were widely criticized by the news media as well as experts. 



Tailings Dams
Properties of Tailings Dams, United States Society on Dams - USSD (formerly United States Committee on Large Dams - USCOLD), December 31, 2001. Layman descriptions and graphics.

Tools for Tailings Management, Russell A. Carter, Engineering & Mining Journal, October 2001, pp.ww18-ww25.

Tailings Dam Performance from USCOLD Incident Survey Data, C. Strachan, Mining Engineering, March 2001, p.49. No particular type of tailings dam is more susceptible to failures. 

Tailings Dam Performance from USCOLD Incident-survey Data, discussion by A. Agnew of C. Strachan’s paper, Mining Engineering, January 2002, pp. 47-48. This paper clarifies some of Strachan’s information.

Chronology of Major Tailings Dam Failures, 1960 through August 2001. United Nations Environment Program. 



Technology is the Answer

Farming and Wildlife, Dennis Avery, PERC Reports, June 1998. The answer to future needs for food and timber, without increasing the acreage of farmed or forested land, lies with continued technical improvements in crop efficiency, genetically enhanced trees, and more use of drip irrigation. .

Technology in the Earth Sciences, William L.Fisher, GeoTimes, November 2000, p.9. Our environment is getting better and technology has made it possible. Or, contact the author at .

“EPA, sound science validate biotech corn benefits”, James M. Taylor, Environment & Climate News, January 2002.  Sound science has debunked yet another purported biotech scare, as the Environmental Protection Agency on October 16, 2001, declared biotech corn perfectly safe for monarch butterfly consumption. and click on ‘environment’.   


Toxic Release Inventory

Toxic Release Inventory, EPA, current status. Reporting Year 2001 Public Data Release. TRI Stakeholder Dialogue. How Are the Toxics Release Inventory Data Used? EPA Denies National Mining Association overburden petition (PDF) (HTML). Summary of and EPA's Response to the National Mining Association (NMA) Lawsuit .

“Mining industry exempt from reporting releases of some metals” Greenwire, 6/5/2003. A U.S. District Court ruled that mining companies were not responsible under the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) regulations for reporting metals in waste rock that are removed from mines but not "manufactured" in the mining process. Mercury and lead must still be reported but other metals that comprise <1% of the waste rock do not need to be reported. 

"Toxic Release Inventory Reporting", The Small Business Advocate, December-January 2003, p.5. EPA reduced the reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds from 10,000 pounds to 10 pounds. However, EPA is now subjecting the rule to peer review.

Toxics Release Inventory: Community Right-to-Know, EPA. EPA’s home page for TRI information.

Toxic Release Inventory, Colorado Mining Association, July 2000. Questions and answers about TRI. 

A new rule promulgated under the Toxics Release Inventory program has lowered the reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds to 100 pounds.

Mining’s TRI Data Available Electronically”, National Mining Association, December 2, 2004. The mining industry’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reports for calendar year 2003 are available on a site-specific basis at the Environmental Protection Agency’s website,

“Our Commitment …”, National Mining Association publication. 85% of the TRI materials reported by the minerals industry are constituents of the rock that is mined. There are 650 chemicals on the TRI data base but only 20 of them are used by the minerals business. 

“EPA's Toxics Release Data Mask Progress in Pollution Control”, Joel Schwartz, Environment News published by The Heartland Institute, September 1, 2004. The EPA’s June 23, 2004 TRI report said that toxic releases rose by 5% in 2002 over 2001. The increase was caused by the closing of one copper smelter and the dismantling created ‘waste’ that had to be reported. Excluding that one smelter, toxic release actually declined by 3%. Five reasons are explained to show that TRI is not a good indicator of toxic releases. 

“Community Right to Know (TRI)”, updated May 2005, prepared by Colorado Mining Association. The Toxic Release Inventory was established as a part of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. This site defines was TRI is, what is reported, how are these chemicals managed, health risk profiles, production of these chemicals, economic impacts, and FAQs.

“Significant Mercury Emissions Reductions Highlight Mining Industry TRI Data”, National Mining Association, May 11, 2005. Data for the year 2003 show the percentage of total national emissions that are attributable to the minerals business for air, surface waters, offsite treatment, underground injection, and on land for onsite management.

“Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)”, National Mining Association. General information about what TRI is, FAQs, risk in perspective, chemical fact sheets, and resources for more information.

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)”, National Mining Association’s information about TRI, December 2, 2004. What is TRI? FAQs. Risks. Chemical Fact Sheets. Resources for more information.




“A Way To Clean Up Toxic Mines”, P. Limerick and T. Brown, The Denver Post, February 5, 2006, p. E1. A plea is made to enact changes to the Clean Water Act so that those who clean up dirty mine waters, even though they did not create them, will not be held financially and legally responsible. Such changes are in the works as “Good Samaritan” amendments to the Act.

Current Drinking Water Standards, EPA, July 2002. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water.

  Myths and Facts About the Environment, The National Center for Public Policy Research’s Earth Day 2002 Fact Sheet, April 2002. Commonly accepted myths are challenged by facts.



  "Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on the Clean Water Act definition of ‘waters of the United States’", Federal Register, January 15, 2003, vol. 68, p. 1991-1998. Court rulings such as the SWANCC decision affirm that isolated, intrastate and non-navigable waterbodies/wetlands are no longer under Clean Water Act jurisdiction (with a few qualifiers). Tributaries that are intermittent, geographically remote, or otherwise not sufficiently linked to navigable waters would not be considered waters of the U.S. and, therefore, not under CWA jurisdiction. Wetlands that are 20 miles from navigable waters may not fall under CWA jurisdiction.

‘Wetlands and Coastal Resources Policy (11-15-05)’, Government Affairs Program of the American Geological Institute. The benefits of wetlands, the laws and rules that govern them, and the debates concerning their use and care are discussed.

"EPA and Army Corps of Engineers Attempt to Define 'Wetland'", Gary Baise and Bryan Brendle, Environment & Climate News, The Heartland Institute, May 2003. The Bush administration appears poised to re-define what constitutes a "wetland" for purposes of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Doing so may expedite construction projects and agricultural activity in many parts of the country and bring some common sense to EPA’s wetland permitting program.

  "Kentuckians for the Commonwealth vs Rivenburgh", U. S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals decision concerning discharge of dredged or fill material and its impact on the regulation of wetlands in the U.S. This decision addresses questions of jurisdiction over a broad class of activities involving dredging or filling activities. It clarifies what constitutes a regulatable discharge to waters of the U.S. during mechanized land clearing, ditching, channelization, in-stream mining, or other mechanized excavation activities.






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